Journal of the College of Education for Women <p><strong>&nbsp;Journal of College of Education </strong><strong>for Women</strong></p> <p><strong>E- ISSN: 2663-547X</strong><strong> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; P ISSN:1680-8738<br></strong></p> <p>1-The journal aims at developing and enriching scientific thought through the promotion and dissemination of research and theoretical and applied studies, which are prepared with the pens and hands of Scientists and Thinkers specialized in scientific institutions and professors of Iraqi, Arab and international universities in all languages ​​besides the Arabic language and in order to serve the humanitarian competencies of the college. The scope of the journal is in the areas of Art and Humanities and computer sciences including (Computer sciences, educational sciences, psychology, History, Geography, Kindergartens, English Language and literature, Arabic Language and Literature, Quranic Sciences and Islamic Education, Home Economics , Social Work and religion).</p> <p>The Journal hopes to deepen the scientific origin of the research and studies published in it by presenting it to professors and experts from inside and outside the country in the field of competence to evaluate them scientifically and linguistically.</p> <p>It is a refereed and accredited Journal in the scientific promotions of Iraqi university professors and for the consolidation of scientific research.</p> <p>The journal issued quarterly "with <strong>four issues per year<em>( March, June, September and December)</em> </strong>.The Average manuscript acceptance rate is 30%.</p> <table style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; height: 13px;" width="5"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="m_1159951262695509670fieldName" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; margin: 0px; font-size: 11px; color: #666666; width: 400px; text-align: right; vertical-align: top;">&nbsp;</td> <td class="m_1159951262695509670fieldValue" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; margin: 0px; font-size: 11px; color: #666666; text-align: left; vertical-align: top; font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <p><img src="/public/site/images/jcoeduw/CC_BY.png" width="133" height="47"></p> <p>All articles published in <strong>Journal of College of Education for Women </strong>&nbsp; are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Journal of College of Education for Women) (Journal of College of Education for Women) Tue, 28 Sep 2021 10:29:10 +0200 OJS 60 An Estimated Answer of a Condition between the Interpretive Structure and Surface Structure: Al-Qurtubi’s Tafseer as a Model <p>This present work is concerned with one of the syntactic issues that has been researched by many linguists, grammarians, and specialists in Islamic studies, the estimated answer to a condition. However, this topic is researched this time by examining Imam Al-Qurtbi’s opinions in interpreting related ayas from the holly Quraan in his book (Collector of Quranic Rules) or its transliteration (Al-Jami’ Li Ahkam Al-Quran). Such a step involves commenting on, tracking what Al-Qurtbi said in this regard, discussing it from the points of view of other grammarians, and judging &nbsp;it accordingly, taking into account the apparent surface structures of the examples collected. To achieve this objective, the inductive analytical approach has been adopted in the analysis by tracing Al-Qurtbi’s various views in interpreting the Quranic verses. One of the most important conclusions of this study is that Al-Qurtubi was a carful interpreter of such linguistic issues, as his analysis was characterized by being highly intellectual and mature. Concerning the estimation of the answer to a condition, the study has concluded that Al-Qurtubi was concerned with the applied aspect of the concepts of interpretive and superficial structures, specifically when he estimated the answer to a condition in each presented verse.</p> Omar Okleh Khulaif Alddajah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Arabic Language Teachers’ Training Needs for Implementing Cognitive Trips Strategy when Teaching Arabic Language Courses in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia <p>The present work focuses on examining the strategy of cognitive trips and the Arabic language teachers’ training needs of such a strategy when teaching Arabic language courses in the Saudi Arabia Kingdom. To achieve the objective of the study, and check whether this strategy is used in lesson planning, lesson teaching, or lesson assessment, a descriptive approach and a questionnaire have been adopted. The researchers used a number of statistical tools, and chose a purposive sample, which consists of (58) Arabic language teachers from Saudi Arabia Kingdom. Results have shown that the training needs of Arabic language teachers for implemining the strategy of cognitive journeys while teaching Arabic language courses came in the following order: the area of lesson planning with 63.8%, lesson implementation with 60.3%, and then evaluating the lesson with 56.9%.&nbsp; Besides, the strategy of cognitive trips that has been applied on learners needs to be used virtually, and to maintain its origins. Finally, the researchers have recommended identifying the strategy of knowledge trips and employing it in the educational process. The researchers have further suggested to provide laboratories equipped with smart devices and the Internet, and to encourage teachers to have intensive training to master the strategy of knowledge trips, and adopt it as an effective method of teaching. They have further suggested to arrange training courses all over the kingdom to improve teacher’ educational results.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Amal Nasser Al-Harbi and, Wafa Al-Owaidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 24 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Awareness of Responsible Citizenship Components among Primary Schoolgirls in Jeddah <p>The research examines the awareness of the components of responsible citizenship among primary schoolgirls in Jeddah using a descriptive approach. A test was then prepared, which consists of loyalty, affiliation to homeland, conscious citizenship based on the knowledge of rights, the fulfillment of duties, family roles in education and society revival, homeland and preservation of the components and gains, participation in achievements, and of national heritage. To maintain the validity and reliability of the study, 28-item test of multiple-choice and short essays type was applied to a random sample of (303) female students in the (fourth-fifth-sixth) primary school class in Jeddah. Results have shown that the level of awareness of school-grade students (fourth-fifth-sixth) of the components of responsible citizenship as a whole was high, where the means of the components ranged between (0.71-0.86). Moreover, the highest mean for the component (family and strengthening its vital tools in education and community development) was (0.86). Results have further shown that there are statistically significant differences between the averages. The mean of the responsible citizenship test according to the grade variable has a test value that is equal to (123.16). That is, there is a statistically significant value at the level of (0.05 α≤). Besides, there are statistically significant differences between the means for the fourth and fifth grades in favor of the fifth grade, and between the means of the fourth and sixth grades in favor of the sixth grade. Finally, there are no statistically significant differences between the means of the fifth and sixth grades.</p> Eman Salem Ahmed Baroaidah, Shroog Ahmed Faisal Al-Maliki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Forced Displacement during the Syrian Forced Displacement during the Syrian Crisis, and its Impact on Jaramana’s Children's Education: A Field Study , and its Impact on Jaramana’s Children's Education: A Field Study <p>The study aims to examine the problem of forced displacement and its social and economic problems in light of the Syrian crisis. Such an aim helps to know the difficulties and challenges facing the children of displaced families in learning, and the reasons for their lack of enrolment. It also clarifies whether there are significant statistical differences at &nbsp;among the attitudes of the children of the displaced families towards education regarding the following variables: (the work of the head of the family, the economic level of the family, and the work of the children). The study has adopted the descriptive-analytical approach;&nbsp; a questionnaire was adopted as a tool to collect information. The study was applied to a sample of displaced families in Jaramana City in the governorate of Damascus countryside. The sample consisted of sixty items that represent 40% of the displaced families. Results have shown that the largest percentage of the social and economic problems that the displaced families suffer from is due to the high rents of houses and apartments, and to the high prices and the inability to purchase the basic needs. There are statistically significant differences between the attitudes of the children of the displaced families towards education due to the variable of work of the head of the family, and to the variable of the economic level. For the family, the study has recommended, in light of its findings, several recommendations, including: Enacting temporary laws for the displaced families that include: educating their children, giving priority to employing the members of these families, providing them with houses, and granting them easy and interest-free loans that enable them to buy a house or repair their homes when they return to their liberated from terror areas.</p> Nihal Abdulsalam Rehawi Jalb, Qassem Al-Rebdawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Reasons for Lying in Kindergarten Children from the Kindergarten Teachers’ Point of View: A Comparative Study between Males and Females <p>Lying is considered a dangerous tendency among children if it has become a habit. It results in many social problems, such as child’s loss of confidence, lack of others’ respect to him, and his lack of respect to the desired values ​​of the society, such as honesty and trust. Consequently, he will be led to a deviation when he becomes old; especially if the child’s socially unaccepted behavior has not been directed. The research, thus, aims to examine the causes of lying in the most important stage of children’s life; that is, between (4-6) years. Such an aim helps to know about the individual reasons of lying among males and females from teachers’ perspectives. To meet the objective of the study, a number of (128) children has been randomly selected from the children of the Kindergarten Department during the academic year 2019-2020, together with (28) she-teachers. In addition, a questionnaire has been designed for the purpose of discovering the reasons behind a child’s lying in the Kindergarten. The researchers have used many statistical means, such as: T-test for one sample and T-test for two independent samples, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Kay square to find the difference between home and kindergarten regarding reasons of lying. Results have shown that the fe(male) children in the kindergarten live in a social environment that lacks honesty; especially the case with male children. Moreover, female kindergarten children enjoy a wide imagination; which is characterized by being exaggerating, abundance,, creativity, and lack of adherence to concrete reality. The reasons to lie for kindergarten male children are higher than that of female’.&nbsp;</p> Sajlaa Faiq Hashem, Kalthoom Abd Aon Radam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Social Safety Nets and Sustainable Development in Fragile Environments: A Field Social Study of Slums in the City of Baghdad/Al-Karkh <p>Almost human societies are not void of poverty, as the latter accompanied the emergence of humanity, and it, thus, represents an eternal problem. To advance an individual's reality and raise the level of the poor social classes, social security networks have been established. Such networks operate in society following social systems and laws to provide food, and material support. Besides, such networks help to rehabilitate the individual academically and vocationally. They empower vulnerable groups through the establishment of courses and workshop, provide (conditional) subsidies related to the health and educational aspects in order to achieve the sustainable development goals of (2030), and apply developmental roles of social safety nets that target the needy and poor groups living in slums, especially in the city of Baghdad. They further stand on the humanitarian and social conditions experienced by the residents of those areas. the study also examines the role of both formal and informal organizations in achieving sustainable development goals. The data of the study involves five complexes in Baghdad, specifically Al- Karkh side; these include the following: (Mu'amel Al-Masdar Complex, Al-Rahman Complex, Noor Complex), Al-Huda, Al-Raja’ Complex, and Al-Noor Village Complex). That is, the number of families was 250; 50 from each complex. A statistical program (SPSS) and scientific tools have been used to collect the data, such as observational questionnaire, interview, and groups&nbsp; focal point. The study has revealed that most of the respondents received food aids from different parties at a rate of (64.80%), especially during the crises that the country witnessed. The vast majority of the respondents, (1-87%), who benefited from the social assistance, do not have an alternative financial source.</p> Hiba Saleh Mahdi, Adnan Yasin Mustafa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Degree of Knowledge and Use of Authentic Assessment Tools by Basic Elementary Teachers' According to some Variables <p>Evaluation is one of the most important elements of&nbsp; teaching process. The recent trends in evaluation and educational reform movements have called for using alternative evaluation, which focuses on performance evaluation. Authentic assessment is usually described as formative, in which students participate in their acquisition, in addition to the fact that students are productive and active, which is reflected in the students' achievement and skill level. The study aims to reveal the degree of knowledge and use of alternative assessment tools by primary school teachers in Gaza -Palestine. To meet the objective of the study, the researchers used the descriptive-analytical method and the questioner as a study tool. The study sample consisted of (134) elementary basic school teachers in the Gaza governorate in Palestine. Results have shown that the percentage of knowledge of alternative evaluation tools reached (77.7%), which is a high level, and that the percentage of using alternative evaluation tools reached (70.3%). As it is seen, the percentages do not vary according to variables, such as: gender, educational qualification, specialization, classes taught by the teacher, years of service, type of school, gender of school students, educational region, and taking training courses. Howerver, the degree of usage of such alternative tools varies in favour of basic education. The study recommends continuing to motivate primary school teachers to employ alternative assessment tools, and to support them with courses and workshops that enhance their skills in employing these tools</p> Amjad Joma, Amjad Joma, Sharif Al Soudi, Salma Alalawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Commonest Negative Behavioral Manifestations among Kindergarten Children in the Post-Terrorist Phase <p>Behavioral and emotional disorders represent one of the commonest problems facing children in particular and disturbing their parents and educators in general. This is because Iraqi people have long been living in difficult conditions and faced various terrorists’ operations, such as killing, destruction, robbery, and looting. Such operations are said to be one of the reasons that leads to the development of such disorders, and may negatively affect the psyche of the child and be reflected on his behavior as represented by playing with the IPad for hours, and suffering from nightmares. Accordingly, the current research aims to examine specifically the commonest negative behavioral disorders among kindergarten children during the post-terrorist phase. To achieve this objective, the researchers prepared a tool for measuring the commonest behavioral manifestations among kindergarten children, and distributed it to a sample of (160) children’s female teachers and mothers; each using a multi-stage method. Results have shown that the computed value of (t-test) reached (17.793) for female teachers’ estimations and (6,653) for mother's estimations. That is, the computed value is greater than the tabulated, (1.96), at the level of significance (0.05) and degree of freedom (159.( The highest degree of severity belongs to the behavioral aspect of playing with the iPad for long hours according to the teachers’ estimates. It has scored (3.843) with a weight percentage that is equal to (96.075). However, the same behavioral aspect has a severity degree that is equal to (3.59) with a weight percentage reaches (89.825) from the parent’s perspectives. As for the second manifestation, thinking of the death of a family member, its severity has scored (3.593) with a weight percentage of (89.82) according to the parents’ estimates, whereas the severity degree of the behavioral manifestation, suffering from disturbing dreams and nightmares, is (3.55) with a weight percentage....</p> Shaimaa Harith Muhammad, Amal Dawood Saleem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Efficiency of Infrastructure Services in Khor Al-Zubair City (Iraq) Firas Sami Abdulaziz Alqatrani1 and Amira <p>The aim of the research is to demonstrate the concept, characteristics, efficiency and adequacy of infrastructure in Khor Al-Zubair, as it represents an important benchmark for judging the development of the city. The researchers thus aim to measure the efficiency, adequacy and personal impression of each service in Khor Al-Zubair city and its residential neighborhoods. To meet this objective, the researchers used the descriptive and analytical approach that involves randomly distributing a questionnaire with specific questions to the neighbors of the city. The study has reached a set of results and recommendations that contribute to addressing the problems to the sector of infrastructure services in the city, such as: the per capita share of liquid water in Khor Al-Zubair has reached 100 liters/day, which is less than the quota specified, 450 liters/day by the Iraqi standard. This results in a deficit of 77.2% of the total amount of water that must be provided per person. In addition to the deficiency there is also a decrease in the quality of liquefied water in Khor Al-Zubair city due to its high level of salinity in it, which reached 916 TDS in 2020. Further, there is a deficit of electrical power of 10 megawatts, leading the city to be exposed to regular interruption of electrical current of about six hours per day, where the hours of interruption increase in the hot season of the year.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Firas Sami Abdulaziz Alqatrani, Amira Muhammad Amin Hamzah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Classism Hate Speech in Katherine Mansfield's Short Story ‘The Doll’s House’: A Pragmatic Study <p>Hate speech (henceforth HS) has recently spread and become an important issue. This type of speech in children's writings has a particular formulation and specific objectives that the authors intend to convey. Thus, the study aims at examining qualitatively and quantitatively the classism&nbsp;HS and its pragmatic functions via identifying the speech acts used to express &nbsp;classism HS, the implicature instigated as well as impoliteness. Since pragmatics is the study of language in context, which is greatly related to the situations and speaker’s intention, this study depends on pragmatic theoriespeech acts, impoliteness and conversational implicature) to analyze the data which are taken from Katherine Mansfield's short story (The Doll’s House).&nbsp;The data has been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. It is qualitative, as it is dedicated to describe HS phenomenon that is found in the selected short story, depending on an eclectic model. Regarding the quantitative analysis, the researchers have used SPSS 23 program to determine the frequencies and percentages of the strategies that are intended to be measured. The study has concluded that HS has multiple dimensions that are difficult to interpret outside the context of speech. It can be conveyed by many strategies, both explicit and covert. Further, the simplest&nbsp; form of HS involves an insult in addition to other functions, such as disapproval and humiliation.&nbsp;</p> Iman Noori Jassim, Muslih Shwaysh Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Lying in Arthur Miller's The Crucible: A Pragmatic Study <p>Lying is a controversial issue as it is closely related to one's intended meaning to achieve certain pragmatic functions. The use of lying in literary works is closely related to the characters’ pragmatic functions as in the case of Miller's <em>The Crucible</em> where it is used as a deceptive complex phenomenon that cannot be observed out of context<em>.</em> That is, the use of lying as a deceptive phenomenon represents a violation to Grices's Maxims. Thus, the study aims to qualitatively examine the kinds of maxims being violated, the kinds of violations conducted, the strategies followed in the violations, and the pragmatic functions behind such violations across the different categories of lies. To this end, the (30) extracts found in Miller's <em>The Crucible</em> have been all examined following Grice's (1975/1978) Cooperative Principle and Implicature theories. The analysis has revealed that the quality maxim was breached most of the time with a percentage of (96,6~97%), covert violation occupied (66,6~67%) (the same percentages of both prototypical lies and Intentional Deceptive Lies), fabrication was with (83%) and the pragmatic function ''to avoid punishment'' appears with (46,6~47%). This means that truthfulness was violated beside other maxims, and strategies of&nbsp; fabrication. Such a violation enhances lying, and false-implicature, and intensifies the tragic end for most of the innocent characters. Minor lies are slightly concerned with plot development and events escalation. Finally, the characters lie in order to achieve certain pragmatic functions. However, the most dominant function adopted when lying was to avoid punishment.</p> Hadeel Mahmoud Ibrahim, Juma’a Qadir Hussein ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Role of Binary Settings in John Updike’s Short Stories: A Structuralist Approach <h2>John Updike’s use of setting in his fiction has elicited different and even conflicting reactions from critics, varying from symbolic interpretations of setting to a sense of confusion at his use of time and place in his stories.&nbsp; The present study is an attempt at examining John Updike’s treatment of binary settings in Pigeon Feathers and Other Stories (1962) to reveal theme, characters’ motives and conflicts.&nbsp; Analyzing Updike’s stories from a structuralist’s perspective reveals his employment of two different places and times in the individual stories as a means of reflecting the psychological state of the characters, as in “The Persistence of Desire”, or expressing conflicting views on social and political issues, as in “A&amp;P” and “Home”, or commenting on religious issues as in “Pigeon Feathers.”&nbsp; The study also examines Updike’s use of setting as a structural device to provide unity to the diverse stories in the collection.&nbsp; The study concludes that binary settings provide structural unity to the stories in the collection and add a psychological dimension and depth to the characters.</h2> Muayad Enwiya Jajo Al-Jamani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200