Journal of the College of Education for Women https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal <p><strong>&nbsp;Journal of College of Education </strong><strong>for Women</strong></p> <p><strong>E- ISSN: 2663-547X</strong><strong> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; P ISSN:1680-8738<br></strong></p> <p>1-The journal aims at developing and enriching scientific thought through the promotion and dissemination of research and theoretical and applied studies, which are prepared with the pens and hands of Scientists and Thinkers specialized in scientific institutions and professors of Iraqi, Arab and international universities in all languages ​​besides the Arabic language and in order to serve the humanitarian competencies of the college. The scope of the journal is in the areas of Art and Humanities and computer sciences including (Computer sciences, educational sciences, psychology, History, Geography, Kindergartens, English Language and literature, Arabic Language and Literature, Quranic Sciences and Islamic Education, Home Economics , Social Work and religion).</p> <p>The Journal hopes to deepen the scientific origin of the research and studies published in it by presenting it to professors and experts from inside and outside the country in the field of competence to evaluate them scientifically and linguistically.</p> <p>It is a refereed and accredited Journal in the scientific promotions of Iraqi university professors and for the consolidation of scientific research.</p> <p>The journal issued quarterly "with <strong>four issues per year<em>( March, June, September and December)</em> </strong>.The Average manuscript acceptance rate is 30%.</p> <table style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; height: 13px;" width="5"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="m_1159951262695509670fieldName" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; margin: 0px; font-size: 11px; color: #666666; width: 400px; text-align: right; vertical-align: top;">&nbsp;</td> <td class="m_1159951262695509670fieldValue" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; margin: 0px; font-size: 11px; color: #666666; text-align: left; vertical-align: top; font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <p><img src="/public/site/images/jcoeduw/CC_BY.png" width="133" height="47"></p> <p>All articles published in <strong>Journal of College of Education for Women </strong>&nbsp; are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> jcoeduw@coeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq (Journal of College of Education for Women) jcoeduw@coeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq (Journal of College of Education for Women) Sun, 28 Mar 2021 16:57:45 +0200 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Argumentative Communication in Rawdat Al-Muhebben wa Nozhatt Al-Mushtaqeen’s Book by Ibn Al-Qayyem: The Foundations and Mechanisms of its Functioning https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1457 <p>This research seeks to unravel the components of the argumentative discourse in the Book of ʻ<em>Rawdat al-Muhebbeen wa Nozhatt al-Mushtaqeen</em>ʼ - The Garden of Lovers and the Promenade of Longing People – by Ibn Al-Qayyem Al-Jawziyah. This is because this book has a moderate discourse with a sound Islamic thought that is characterized by its sustainability, popularity, realism, and interaction with the successive developments of the new age. This reflects the intellectual maturity the composing process has reached in the philosophy of love and its educational bases in every place and time. To explore the componets, properties, and the working mechanisms of an argumentative discourse in Ibn Qayyem’s book, the present work has been conducted using a pragmatic closeness approach among the three communication polars: (sender, receiver, and message). Through the third pole, the researcher attempts to interpret the text internally, shedding light on its philosophical and aesthetic semantic significance. Such a type of analysis helps reveal the logical argument that conforms to the spirit of the age during which the book appeared. This can be clarified by exploring the sender’s employed emotional arguments that are connected to the recipient and his persuasive realistic experiences. All the above discussion reveals the secrets of a discourse and its hidden points, establishes the values of a dialogue and persuasion, accepts the differences, and reconciles between the different opinions. Accordingly, an argumentative entery has been chosen as it represents a communicative act that is based on a set of interactive rules orienting interlocuters’ intentions.</p> Maryam Ibrahim Ali Hamed Ghabban ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1457 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Stories of Proverbs in the Holy Qur’an, Prophet’s Hadith, and Arabs’ Sayings: A Literary Study https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1461 <p>The Arab realized that proverbs and their stories had a great literary and linguistic significance, accordingly, they collected them from their sources and wrote them down. Thus, researchers went in studying them in different directions. The aim of the present research is thus to study the stories of proverbs in the Holy Qur’an, Prophet’s hadiths, and in the sayings of Arabs. Such a study helps to show the extent of the relevance of their stories to the proverbs, their literary values, the points of convergence between them and what they highlight, and the extent of their proximity to reality. It further helps to determine the factors that contributed to the transformation of Quranic verses, Prophet’s hadiths, and some phrases of stories into proverbs. Accordingly, the researcher has adopted the descriptive analytical approach to comparatively examine the stories behind these proverbs, sheding light on the different interpretations being highlighted by different narrators. As for the most important results of the study, they are: Behind most of the proverbs are stories written in a high narrative language that addresses their past events, and gives them &nbsp;an artistic taste of preaching senses. They also bear a lot of simple, artistic, and brief features. Proverbs are used in everyday and are as simply recalled as that of the Qur’anic verses in accordance with the events that people experience. Many proverbs are widely used by many people without knowing about their real stories, and have many interesting, concise and entertaining interpretations. Or, they might be used to describe real events or bases for such real events. &nbsp;</p> Muslim Obaid Fendi Al-Rashidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1461 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Phenomenon of Phonological Follow in Al-Amali Abi Ali Al-Qali’s Book (seq.356 Hijri): A Phonological Study https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1462 <p>This research discusses the verbal follow phenomenon in Al-Amali Abi Al-Qali’s book (seq.356 Hijri). It aims to limit the examples of this phenomenon in the book, and &nbsp;examine it phonologically. Accordingly, the researcher adopted the analaytical descriptive approach, taking into account Al-Rawi’s letter when ordering the verbal follow-based examples, and the order they took in the book in question. The purposes behind this phonological study of verbal follow in Al-Amali’s book are to: reach the sounds which Arabs prefer in the process of following, confirm different beautiful and desirable senses, have easy and speedy pronunciation, maintain harmony between adjacent sounds, count the sounds that occur at the beginning of the follower- a disputable phonological issue between the follower and following- and spot the phonological change that occurs to the follower. Accordingly, a caution is needed to maintain harmony and homogeneity between two pronunciations to achieve the process of following. Or, the structure of the word follower is changed to match its peer followed word.The study has shown that Al-Qali was the eldest in dealing with the formal aspect of the phenomenon. He pointed to the idea of merging the last letter in the subordinate and the follower, and compared it with a stylistic, artistic, and acoustic characteristic, which is included in the innate rhetoric, i.e., assonance. By that, he has determined the most important formal acoustic features of the rhythmic complex as represented by the endings of the sequences, which have a musical rhythm.</p> Hind Fadhil Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1462 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Effectiveness of a Structural Theory- based Training Program in Enhancing Arabic Language Teachers’ Teaching Practices and their Tendencies towards Structural Teaching https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1463 <p>The study aims to identify the effectiveness of a structural theory-based training program in enhancing the teaching practices of Arabic language teachers teaching grade ten in South Al Batinah in Sultanate of Oman. The study used the quasi-experimental design, and the sample consisted of 40 male and female teachers. To achieve the objectives of the study, a training program, an observation form and a measurement tool of teachers’ tendencies towards a structural teaching were made. The program was implemented with an experimental group of 20 female and male teachers in the first semester of the academic year 2018/2019. The study has found that there is a statistically significant difference between the average grades before and after implementing the program, with higher grades achieved after implementation. There has also been no statistically significant difference between the average grades in the post implementation phase due to the social variable. The researcher recommended organizing training courses for Arabic language teachers to expand their knowledge of educational theories and their applications in classroom teaching practices, and benefiting from the structural teaching observation form in educational supervision.</p> Maryam Hasan Al Balushi, Rayya Salim Al Manthari, Ali Mahdi Kazem ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1463 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Technology of Education and the Technical Reality of Education in Sudan: Analytical Samples https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1464 <p>This study aims to examine the technologies of education and their importance, shedding light on their reality and &nbsp;status in Sudan especially in the secondary stage. It has become necessary to invest these technologies and include them in different aspects of the technical education curricula. Such a step helps cope with the innovative scientific development in the advanced countries, qualify professors and technicians, develop the factories and workshops, and create an attractive technical educational environment to the pupils. Thus, the researcher has adopted a descriptive analytical approach that is based on conducting pilot visits to certain technical schools in Al-Khartoum state. Different aspects of such schools were examined, such as: (crafts, commercial, female technical). Moreover, some interviews were made with a purposeful sample of headmasters and teachers of &nbsp;schools, taking into account their notes and suggestions.&nbsp; In addition, the technical education department at the ministry of education was visited to stand upon the workshops' recommendations and the scholarly papers presented in the field of technical education in Sudan. The study finally has concluded that the technical education in Sudan needs much more focus on using modern technology to cope with the scientific development of curriculla, educators and different educational tools. In addition, many parents do not encourage their children to go for such a type of education as they ignore the value of technical education.</p> Asmaa Mohamed Alameen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1464 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Estimates of Palestinian University Students in Gaza Governorate to the Contribution Degree of Teaching Human Sciences in their Political Education https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1466 <p>The study aims to examine the estimation of a sample of Palestinian University students in Gaza governorate to the contribution of teaching human sciences in their political education. It further aims to reveal whether there are statistically significant differences at a significance level (α≤ 0.05) between the averages of the sample. Such differences might be attributed to the following variables: sex, residential area, specialization. To achieve this, the researcher used the descriptive approach by applying a tool of (50) items on (618) randomly chosen male and female students from the largest Palestinian universities in the governorates of Gaza. Results have shown that: the overall degree of estimation to the contribution of teaching human sciences to political education was (68.43%), where the fields culture and political self-components ranked first with a relative weight of (72.09%), the fields awareness and political participation ranked second with a relative weight of (64.76%), and that there are no statistically significant differences between the average scores of the sample's estimates to the degree contribution of teaching human sciences in Palestinian universities to political education. That was due to the variables of residential area and gender. However, differences were found due to the variable of specialization in favor of (Sharia sciences). Finally, the researcher recommended reformulating the contents of some human sciences in Palestinian universities, including: the problems of society, political awareness of the rights and duties, and having care about the methods of teaching human sciences that enhance the patriotism, such as the use of role-playing, simulation )modeling(.</p> Mahmoud Abdel-Majeed Assaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1466 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Role of Social Work in Reducing the Phenomenon of Fanaticism https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1467 <p>The present study is concerned with the concept of ethics academically. It aims to investigate the major problems that contemporary Iraqi society suffers from; on top of which is the problem of sectarian and religious intolerance. Such a problem has a major role in the emergence of extremism and terrorism. It further destabilizes the security and stability of the country, exposing, as a result, the lives of citizens to the danger of genocide, disintegrating the social structure, stopping the wheel of development, rampant corruption, and deteriorating the political, social, moral and economic situation. Here comes the role of social work as governmental institutions and civil society organizations in curbing this reprehensible phenomenon in the hope of overcoming it. Such a role is in conformity with and implements the developmental, curative, preventive, and ethical objectives of social work, especially in the areas of: awareness, social construction unification, social peace, and of spreading the ethics of tolerance and social justice. It further helps to build the civil state, spreads the spirit of citizenship, and the respect for laws. Moreover, it encourages transforming the principles and human rights charters into a practical and lived reality. The research also summarizes the researcher’s philosophy of (humanity), stating that: it is a single ethic for multiple cultures. It can be a base for actions and relationships within the framework of the optimal approach for the civil state, social work institutions, civil society organizations, local and international bodies and for departments working in the same direction. Such a philoshophy &nbsp;leads to overcome the strenuous obstacles left by sectarian and religious fanaticism in contemporary Iraqi society.</p> Hasan Fadhil Jawad ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1467 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Social Protection and its Impact on the Cohesion of Vulnerable Groups: A Field Study of a Sample Social Protection Network Beneficiaries https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1468 <p>Social protection meets different aspects of the needs of vulnerable groups, such as the economic, health, education, and family relations and ties in the Iraqi society. This is because vulnerable groups have suffered from social and economic influences that have negative implications on the social reality as a whole. Poverty is a case in point, which paved the way to frequent setbacks that have led to social structure instability. Accordingly, the present study aims to examine the role and effect of the Net of Social Protection Program in equally distributing social protection to curb or mitigate any negative consequnces that might happen to the poor segments and vulnerable people, who are succeptible to shocks, such as: the orphans, unemployed, disabled and the poor. Since such a step reduces poverty rates, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs has sought through its social protection network programs to achieve equality, the biggest achievement to the country. Having examined the issue, the researcher has found that there is no social justice in distributing material guarantees to the poor or the people in need. There are several individuals whose names are registered in the lists of the people in need. Such names are either fake or belong to people who do not really need such aids. According the puposes behind the present aims are to: maintain fairness in distributing cash collaterals for the people who live below the poverty line in need, overcome the difficulties of coping with the poor community, deal with those people positively, and uplift them. The study has concluded that the number of poor people is increasing in the Iraqi society. Besides, such groups of people need to be respected, severed and provided with a decent way of living. All such rights are part and parcel of human rights.</p> Dina Dawood Muhammad Al-Mawla ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1468 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Judicial Legislations and the Tribal Claims System in the Royal Period: A Documentary Study https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1469 <p>The present research tackles a number of historical facts and incidents with a purely legal dimension in an important stage in the contemporary history of Iraq, especially the era of the British occupation. This resulted in innumerable social, political and legal problems, particularily the judicial legislation problems in Iraq. These legislations included a set of civil laws and in force governmental procedures that will be discussed historically by examining documents issued by the Ministries of Justice and Interior Affairs in the governments of monarchy for the period from 1921-to-1958. The data of the present paper relied on the Iraqi Library and Archives, (hence DKW). The study adopted the narrative historical methodology when investigating the judicial legislations in the royal era from 1921-to-1958. The scale adopted was the contemporary measurement and evaluation in the Iraqi contemporary history. Finally, the results revealed that the history of the penal procedures in the royal era was those multiple attempts to reconcile between the two types of penal procedures that represent the history of the relationship between the individual and the state. Such legislations were set according to the circumstances of each country and to the level of its intellectual, social, political and human development to serve primarily the interests of the British occupation, and &nbsp;fulfill the desires of the influential class in the royal era. Because these legislations and laws were not based on modern scientific theories, many people were wronged, including the judicial authority and legal clerks who complained from their implementation and their continual application on Iraq for all this period.</p> Ahmed Abdul Wahid Abdul Nabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1469 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Attitudes of Press and Political Parties from the Accomplishing the Treaty of 1930 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1471 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This present work adopts the analytic and descriptive methodology to&nbsp; recognize and analyze the major challenges faced by the Iraqi government. The study focuses on the press and national partiers’ cabipility of changing and unifying the opinions of the public in a way that serves the Iraqi interest, taking into account the fact that the press is the fourth authority after the three major authorities, (Executive, Legislation and Judicial). The researcher has concluded that the Iraqi press and parties initiated a national front with the Iraqi people against the government’s signature of the treaty of (1930). The national front illustrated that signing the treaty strengthens the authority of the British occupation upon the national properties, and its internal and external decisions within the political and economic fields. Additionally, an obvious difference related to what has been written in the Iraqi press has been noticed, where the press represents the mirror of the policy and direction of the political parties. However, at the end, their opinions have been formulated in accordance with the benefits of the country. The treaty has given the Iraqi government a namely dependence after years of the British mandate.The&nbsp;major conclusion of this paper shows the effect of 10 newspapers on the public opinions. These include the following: &nbsp;Al-Iraq Press, Al-Nahdha Iraqi Press,&nbsp; Sada Al-Watan Press, and Sada Al-Istaqlal Press. Each press wrote more than 8 articles, tackling the negative side of the treaty. Further, they helped in educating the Iraqi people about the risks, and the negative impact of the treaty in limiting the freedom of the Iraqi people.</p> Vian Hussain Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1471 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Historical Succession of Equal Rain Lines in Iraq https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1472 <p>The current research focuses on examining the isohyets in a set of (3) climatic maps of Iraq. Two of these maps were published in the Iraq Climate Atlas and the third one was published in an English source about the geography of Iraq. The first map represents the period from 1923-to-1944, the second is for the period from 1961-to-1990, whereas the third represents the period from 1971-to-2000. Comparing among these three maps, it has become clear that there are noticeable changes of rain in Iraq. In the first map, which represents the decade of the twenties, thirties and early forties, Iraq was located between two Isohyet lines (127 mm) in the far south and (1270 mm) in the far north. As for the second map, which represents the sixties, seventies and eighties, Iraq became between the Isohyet lines (100 and1000 mm). This means that Iraq has lost (3) important rain lines, 1270,1134, and 1016mm. The third map, which represents the decade of seventies, eighties and nineties, displayed another important change where Iraq became between the Isohyet lines (100 and 700 mm). This means that Iraq has lost again (3) important Isohyet lines, representing by 800, 900, and1000 mm. This means that the annual rainfall in Iraq is heading towards a gradual decline. On the other hand, it has become clear that some of the equal rain lines are constantly appearing on the map of Iraq; they specifically include the following: (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 mm).</p> Salar Ali Khidher ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1472 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Unplanned Urbanization and Agricultural Land Degradation in Baghdad City from 2003 to 2017 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1474 <p>Several problems have emerged as a result of urban expansion or the connection of urban areas with rural areas. This process has led to the urbanization of rural areas, and to have overlapping edges and margins of areas, which were outside the basic design of the city. Accordingly, the present research assumes that the accelerating growth of Baghdad population has contributed significantly to the process of unplanned urbanization. Thus, the study aims to examine the factors that have led to an increase of urban sprawl at the expense of the agricultural land. The study has thus adopted the descriptive, analytical, and historical approaches relying on the simple linear regression method to predict the phenomenon of urban expansion and its impact on the agricultural land. It has also included illustrative maps used in the preparation of geographic information technology (GIS).The study has concluded that the events of Iraq after 2003, the absence of legal rules, weak legislation, and the successive large immigrations from the countryside to the city have all led directly to a great increase in the process of housing expansion at the expense of agricultural lands. The research recommended the necessity of finding final solutions to the problem of encroachment on agricultural lands, establishing new and low-cost urban housing with full facilities and services, simplifying the procedures of building&nbsp; licensing,&nbsp; and reducing fees.</p> Ahmed Abbas Kadhim, Laith Zaid Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1474 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 A Pragmatic Analysis of Personal Deixes in Lyrical Poetry: Ezra Pound's Lyrics "Girl" and "A Virginal" https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1475 <p>Deixes belong to the field of both semantics and&nbsp; pragmatics as they lie in the edge of these two fields. Pragmatically, they are concerned with the relationship between the structure of a language and the contexts. The present work aims at analyzing the use of deixes using Levinson’s (1983) and Yule's (1996) concept of deixes, where the latter maintained that the referents of the deixes cannot be realized apart from the context where they are used. He added that the contextual information of certain utterances involves information about the participants (the speaker and the addressee), the time and the place. Consequently, a qualitative- descriptive approach has been adopted to meet the objective of the study which reads, “examining the 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> person deixes in two of Pound’s lyrics ‘<em>Girl</em>’ and ‘<em>A Virginal</em>’. The study has revealed that knowledge about context affects the manifestation of the referents of deixes and uncovers the ambiguity of understanding the poetic extracts. Pragmatically speaking, the referents of the pronouns cannot be detected in isolation from the context where they are used. It has also been found that the context and the interpretation of the literary text can help in determining the referents of the deixes in terms of person, number and gender. Finally, a great relation appears when the referent of the deixis is realized in accordance with its context.</p> Rimah Muhy Majeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1475 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Martin Crimp’s Piece “Advice to Iraqi Women” https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1476 <p>Language is a vehicle for social values and ideologies that a man intends or attempts to express. Dramatic texts are one of the discursive practices that embody values and ideologies. What is expressed in dramatic text is deliberate because it is meant to affect other’s values, trends and ideologies in one way or another. Such ideologies and values are not explicit. To bring them out requires putting language under scrutiny to unveil what is implied. The present study attempts to analyze a dramatic script entitled <em>Advice to Iraqi Women</em> by the British playwright Martin Crimp in an attempt to unveil the intended political ideologies underlying the text. The title reflects a political aspect embedded in the word “Iraqi” that brings to the mind the war broken out there at that time. Notwithstanding that the script is written in such an unusual manner that appears to the reader or the spectator to be domestic, familiar and free from any political indications. The model adopted in the analysis of Crimp’s theatrical piece is that of van Dijk’s macro and microstructure analysis within critical discourse analysis. Results have manifested the political ideologies that the writer intends to convey.&nbsp; He attempted to bridge a gap and render the English society to be associated emotionally with the repercussions of the remote war by amalgamating what is familiar with what is unfamiliar.</p> Afraa Abdulhussein Nasser, Sarab Khalil ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1476 Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100