Journal of the College of Education for Women https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal <p><strong>&nbsp;Journal of College of Education </strong><strong>for Women</strong></p> <p><strong>E- ISSN: 2663-547X</strong><strong> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; P ISSN:1680-8738<br></strong></p> <p>1-The journal aims at developing and enriching scientific thought through the promotion and dissemination of research and theoretical and applied studies, which are prepared with the pens and hands of Scientists and Thinkers specialized in scientific institutions and professors of Iraqi, Arab and international universities in all languages ​​besides the Arabic language and in order to serve the humanitarian competencies of the college. The scope of the journal is in the areas of Art and Humanities and computer sciences including (Computer sciences, educational sciences, psychology, History, Geography, Kindergartens, English Language and literature, Arabic Language and Literature, Quranic Sciences and Islamic Education, Home Economics , Social Work and religion).</p> <p>The Journal hopes to deepen the scientific origin of the research and studies published in it by presenting it to professors and experts from inside and outside the country in the field of competence to evaluate them scientifically and linguistically.</p> <p>It is a refereed and accredited Journal in the scientific promotions of Iraqi university professors and for the consolidation of scientific research.</p> <p>The journal issued quarterly "with <strong>four issues per year<em>( March, June, September and December)</em> </strong>.The Average manuscript acceptance rate is 30%.</p> <table style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; height: 13px;" width="5"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="m_1159951262695509670fieldName" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; margin: 0px; font-size: 11px; color: #666666; width: 400px; text-align: right; vertical-align: top;">&nbsp;</td> <td class="m_1159951262695509670fieldValue" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; margin: 0px; font-size: 11px; color: #666666; text-align: left; vertical-align: top; font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <p><img src="/public/site/images/jcoeduw/CC_BY.png" width="133" height="47"></p> <p>All articles published in <strong>Journal of College of Education for Women </strong>&nbsp; are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> jcoeduw@coeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq (Journal of College of Education for Women) jcoeduw@coeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq (Journal of College of Education for Women) Mon, 28 Dec 2020 20:21:25 +0100 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Al-Bayhaqi’s Preferred Opinions in his Book Al-Khilafiyat-Chapter of Breastfeeding https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1423 <p>This research is a comparative jurisprudential study that focuses on Imam Al-Bayhaqi’s preferred opinions in his book <em>Al-Khilafiyat (The Disagreements</em>), the part of Al-Rida’a (Breastfeeding). It is considered one of the most important familial topics that is concerned with organizing the social relations in Islam, strengthens the family ties and that prevents the family disintegration due to the ignorance and lack in comprehending Sharia laws (Islam law) in all aspects. The study follows the inductive and descriptive method. It aims at examining the prohibition of marriage when breastfeeding takes place at the time of woman’s conversion to Islam or during her infidelity period. It further aims at verifying the prohibition that helps to know the most correct point of view among jurists. That is; to know whether or not the preference of Imam Al-Bayhaqi’s opinion or other jurists is the correct issue in his book, Al-Khilafat. This preference depends on the strength of the transmission evidence inferred by each doctrine. The study has found that five times of separate breastfeeding leads to sense of prohibition, and that the period that a mother should wean her child in infancy is that of two years only.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Athra'a Hameed Freeh, Ayman Abdel-Qader Al-Hiti ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1423 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Penalty of Semi-Intentional Killing Offence according to the Egyptian and Algerian Penal Law: An Evaluative Study from the Islamic Viewpoint https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1424 <p>The study aims at&nbsp; evaluating &nbsp;the penalty of&nbsp; semi- intentional killing felony in the Egyptian and Algerian criminal law following the Islamic Law (Shari'a). The&nbsp; study used the descriptive, evalutive and analytical&nbsp; methodology&nbsp; to&nbsp; reach the topic in question. To meet the theoretical significance of the study, much data has been collected to give a comprehensive picture about the topic under examination. As for the practical significance of the study, it helps the juridical power to reconsider and phrase the legal materials of the semi-intentional killing penalty based on the Islamic law. The study has come to the conclusions that the Islamic Law (Shari'a) imposes a compensation (blood-money) to be given to the deceased family and an act of expiation as a&nbsp; penalty against those who proved committed of intentional killing felony. However, the Egyptian Penal Law imposes hard labor/imprisonment as an alternative penalty against this felony. On the other hand, the Algerian Criminal law&nbsp; imposes imprisonment as an alternative penalty to this felony. Consequently, the penalties prescribed by both Egyptian and Algerian Laws contradict with what Islamic Law (Shari'a) necessitates. The&nbsp; study&nbsp; recommended&nbsp; that&nbsp; the Egyptian and the Algerian Criminal laws to activate the Islamic law represented by the compensation (blood-money) and act of expiation as a penalty to this crime.</p> Muhammad Gabr Al-Said Abdu-Allah Gameel ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1424 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Pre-Islamic Features in the Poetry of Al-Raei Al-Nawmiri https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1425 <p>This research is dedicated to study Al-Ra’ee Al-Numayri, a distinctive poetic character, to find out the most important (artistic) pre-Islamic features that contributed to its formation. It is further dedicated to know the influence of these features on his literature in the literary arena. After surveying his poetic texts and reading them according to the analytical and investigative methods, the art of the researcher was limited to the&nbsp; field of&nbsp; traditionalists. He was following the footsteps of the ancients by adhering to the traditional Arabic poetry style and the traditional poetic image. Despite that, he had his own imprints and&nbsp; unique style of interrogating times and places with its people, animals and plants. He drew creative, sensual, and artistic poetic images.He bestowed movement and life to his talismanic and flirtatious images by describing the journey and the camel that won the honor of the poet’s eternal participation in all his poetic texts. Consequently, his camel became his legendary animal that accompanies him in his solitude and travels. The participation of the camel in his poetry was an emotional participation of his hopes and pains as well as a test to his patience and dream as it is his partner in his endeavors to praise and obtain the giving and dew of what is desired by him. In the midst of all these events, the effectiveness of the poet's imagination ranked him among the pioneers of Islamic poets. The research falls into an introduction and four axes that clarify the most important of features of his poetry. The study proved his superior poetic ability despite his commitment to the traditionalists.</p> Aseel Abod Gasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1425 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Preparing the Arabic Language Teacher for Non-Native Speakers, Following the Experience of the Arabic Language Institute at the International University of Africa https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1426 <p>The study aims to examine the reality of preparing the Arabic language teacher for non-native speakers by presenting the experience of the Arabic Language Institute at the International University of Africa. Thus, it addresses the following questions: How is it possible to invest the long scientific experiences in proposal and experiment preperations to qualify Arabic language teachers for non-native speakers? What is the reality of preparing an Arabic language teacher at the Institute? How did the Arabic Language Institute process teacher preparation? What are the problems facing the preparation of the Arabic language teachers and the most important training mechanisms used in that Institute?What problems faced the implementation of the experiment of preparing an Arabic language teacher at the language Institute? To present the experiment, the study used the descriptive method. The study is important for program planners of higher education studies, course designers, and for people interested in teaching strategies and teacher training. It also provides Arabic language teachers for non-native speakers to diploma institutions. The study has found that the university experiment is distinguished as it adopts the practical track to form the cumulative experience that helps to solve teacher preparation problems.</p> Muna Yousif Mohamed Wagi Alla ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1426 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Using the Image in Teaching Arabic Language Vocabulary to Non-Native Speakers: The Experience of the Arabic Language Institute - King Abdul-Aziz University - as a Model https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1429 <p>The study aims to demonstrate the importance of instructional methods in teaching Arabic language as a second language or teaching the Arabic language to non-native speakers. The study is in line with the tremendous development in the field of knowledge, especially in the field of technology and communication, and the emergence of many electronic media in education in general and language teaching in particular. It employs an image in teaching vocabulary and presenting the experience of the Arabic Language Institute for Non-Speakers-King Abdul-Aziz University. The study follows the descriptive approach to solve the problem represented by the lack of interest in the educational methods when teaching Arabic as a second language. Accordingly, the study is to answer the following questions: What is the importance of using teaching aids when teaching Arabic to non-Arabic speakers?What are the methods of employing (an image) as an instructional tool in teaching vocabulary? The study has reached that teaching aids are of great importance in studying the Arabic language for the non-native, the image of the audio and visual aids plays a great role in teaching vocabulary to the beginners. In its modern version, it helps directly in teaching the language from a distance and thus fulfills the hopes of many in teaching Arabic language and covers the acute shortage of a language teacher.</p> Amal Mussa Abbass Elaimam ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1429 Sun, 27 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Effectiveness of Instructional Scaffolding Strategy in the Development of Academic Achievement and Critical Thinking in Female Second Year Secondary Students in Mathematics https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1430 <p>This study aims to find out the effectiveness of instructional scaffolding strategy in the development of academic achievement and critical thinking of female second grade secondary mathematics students. Semi-experimental and relational descriptive method was used. The sample of the study consisted of (50) students divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group was taught using scaffolding strategy whereas the control group was taught using traditional method. Pre- and Post-tests were used to achieve the objective of the study. The results of the study revealed that there are statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the experimental and control groups in the posttest for both the academic achievement and critical thinking scale in favor of the experimental group. Furthermore, the findings have shown that there is a positive correlation between academic achievement and critical thinking. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommend curriculum designers and decision makers to integrate the scaffolding strategy in curricula and hold workshops for teachers to use scaffolding strategy in teaching mathematics.</p> Mohammed Sanat Alharbi, Amnah Saeed Bin-Jabal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Accepted: October 28, 2020 Received: July 21, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1430 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Digital Citizenship and its Relationship to the Level of Health Awareness of Corona Virus (Covid-19) among a Sample of Palestinian University Students https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1432 <p>The study aims to identify the degree of appreciation for the level of digital citizenship of a sample of Palestinian university students in the governorates of Gaza, and its relationship to the level of health awareness about the emerging coronavirus (covid-19). To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed a descriptive approach by applying two questionnaires; the first, which consists of 30 items, was used&nbsp; to measure the level of digital citizenship. &nbsp;The second, which consists of 19 items, was used to measure the level of health awareness. Both questionnaires&nbsp; were applied on a sample of 367 students who were electronically selected using the manner simple randomness. Results have shown that the degree of appreciation for the level of digital citizenship was high with a relative weight of 76.08%. Besides, the level of health awareness of coronavirus was high with a relative weight of 81.83%. Additionally, it has been found that there is a direct relationship with a statistical significance between the degree of sample appreciation of the level of digital citizenship, and the degree of&nbsp; its evaluation of the level of health awareness of coronavirus, where the correlation coefficient was 0.468. Moreover, there has been shown that there are no statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the individuals appreciation of the level of health awareness of coronavirus (Covid-19) due to the gender variable. That is; the level of digital citizenship was in favor of females.The study recommended that e-university platforms should include health awareness messages for preventive purposes</p> Mahmoud Abdel-Majeed Assaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Received: September 20, 2020 Accepted: November 3, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1432 Sun, 27 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Evaluating the Indicators and Quality of Potable Water Networks in Al-Shatrah City https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1435 <p>The present paper aims at evaluating the vailability quality and future horizons of potable water in the city of Shatra as a model. This is done in accordance with certain subjective and objective factors alongside the classification map of Shatra as a residential area. This system follows geographical studies specialized in urban construction. The problem of the present paper as well as the data approaching that problem have been chosen from the records of 2018. The researcher offered (919) questionnaire forms to be answered by a sample of dwellers in that area. Besides, the researcher also followed lab analysis of water samples collected from districts in the city of Shatra. GIS technology was also used to arrive at the real water share people are supposed to receive and the quality of potable water they actually have. It has been found that there is a clear scarcity in potable water where an individual is supposed to get 250 liters a day and that has not yet been achieved. Water Purification facilities are small in number and cannot meet people’s need for potable water. This is because the production energy for those facilities is supposed to be from 175-to-1000 cubic meters per hour. However their best production did not exceed the 140-800 cubic meter per hour. The gross need for potable water was estimated to be 8908500 cubic meter per hour. Water shortage is thus of about 585 cubic meter per hour. The future shortage is calculated to reach 46800000 cubic meter per hour in 2028. Above all, water was not good for use by dwellers as it does not meet world standards of healthy potable water.</p> Sumiea Challab Mansi Al-Sahlanee ##submission.copyrightStatement## Received: October 21, 2020 Accepted: November 4, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1435 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Conflict of Active Regional and International Powers over Nagorny Karabakh Region https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1436 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The current study is descriptive; it focuses on studying the contemporary geopolitical problem, and sectarian differences in Caucasus. Nagorno-Karabakh is considered an important disputed region nowadays. Many parties and states participated in this dispute, especially after the conflict had developed into an open war between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Thus, the study aims to examine the causes of the conflict in this region, analyze the international positions on this conflict, and find if Armenia was able to occupy this region. The methodology adopted by the researchers is the functional approach, and the theory of power analysis that Cohen created for analyzing all strengths that drove each of the parties to compete with one another other over the vital area. Among the most important findings of the research are: the multiplicity of causes of conflict in this region; one of which is the passage of one of the most important energy pipelines, Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan line, and the different positions and roles of the actors in this conflict, where some of which support the state of Azerbaijan, and others support the state of Armenia according to what serves their interests. Armenia was able to occupy Karabakh region, and other areas surrounding it that constitute a fifth of the area of ​​Azerbaijan through the war between them since 1989. The study concluded that the conflict is sectarian, ethnic and historical. Armenia considers Karabakh a starting point to achieve the ambition of the united states of Armenia.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Widad H. K. Ali, Muhaymin A. T. Al-Wadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Received: June 23, 2020 Accepted: August 10, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1436 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Syrian Crisis and its Impact on Russia Economically and Politically https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1437 <p>Th paper scientifically deals with the Syrian crisis events erupted in 2011 using the historical descriptive and analytical approaches. The importance of the paper comes from the serious crisis that occurred in a region rich of historical crises, and natural resources attracting the attention of the major countries. The paper aims to show the Syrian crisis, its importance to Russia, the United States, and the regional countries, its impact on Russia economically and politically after the intervention, and Russia’s achievements on a global level holding the influential power on international decisions and other global events. The new Russian strategy has proven its worth in preserving its strategic interests as it could help the Syrian regime to defeat the armed groups, and impose its authority over most of the country. As a result of its military intervention, Russia suffered from an increase in its military expenditures reaching (69.2) billion dollars in 2016 compared to 2015 which was (66.4). This shows that the military campaign in Syria has caused a significant increase in spending, and nearly (600,000) of the Russian companies have stopped working. Thus, (13%) of the Russians have fallen below the poverty line. Despite this, Russia has been able to restore its prestigious position in the international scene via influencing the course of political and military events in Syria as well as preserving its regime, which is one of its most prominent allies in the Middle East region.</p> Ali Taha Abdullah Al-Jumaily ##submission.copyrightStatement## Received: August 20, 2020 Accepted: November 8, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1437 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Ethics-Breaking Crimes: A Social Field Study in Baghdad City https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1438 <p>Crime has become a phenomenon associated with human socialization.&nbsp; Wherever human groups are found, a crime, which differs from one society to another, is found. It is one of the most dangerous social issues that undermines the solidarity of a given society. This is because it establishes a takeoff from community's norms, values, customs and traditions, and thus turns into a danger to the lives of people, groups and society that threatens its strength and security. The paper focuses on the crimes that violate the social law, like child rape, incest and electronic extortion, which are increasing in size, increasing as a result their repercussions on the human society. The study seeks several objectives, including: examining the nature and dimensions of crimes that violate the values and system of social control and their repercussions. It also investigates the reasons that led to the spread of these crimes breaching accordingly the social law and the value system. This study is a descriptive and analytical one which relied on the social survey using a sampling method. The sample of the study was 150&nbsp; intentionally selected inmates deposited in some prisons of the Iraqi Correctional Department of perpetrators of child rape, incest, electronic extortion. Besides, 50 social workers and researchers were intentionally selected, too. The data was processed statistically, using (SPSS) program. Moreover, observation, interview tools were used to record information. Results have shown that most of the perpetrators of social transgression crimes, (61.3%), are of lowest levels (illiterate, read and write, primary). Further, the majority of the sample members are males, (127) with a percentage of (84.7%). Finally, it has been found that most sample members (58.0%) came from poor class and sufferred from conditions of weakness.</p> Haneen Hassain Abd allah, Adnan Yasin Mustafa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Received: October 4, 2020 Accepted: November 15, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1438 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Variables (Bias-cut) of Tailoring and their Effect on the Quality of Fitting the Standard Pattern for Large-Shaped Iraqi Ladies https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1440 <p>The present research is descriptive and analytical by nature; it practically presents the method of implementing the standard pattern in an unconventional way using the bias-cut line. The study aims at investigating the variables of bias-cut and their suitability for fitting large-shaped Iraqi ladies. It also aims at exploring the artistic and innovative features of the bias-cut. Therefore, one needs to understand the rules and basics of clothing and the nature of the body to reach the maximum degree of control.Consequently, the study is to answer the following questions: What is the effectiveness of tailoring on the bias-cut in fitting a standard template of a large-shaped Iraqi ladies? Is it possible to obtain from the offered possibilities of bias-cut styles innovative designs that go with fashion lines?The study represents a new addition to the clothing industry through the use of unconventional methods in fitting the standard template. It helps to find innovative solutions and new entrances using design treatments. The sample of the study included (100) women stature chosen on purpose. The study has found that the use of the fitting variables contributed to increasing the fitting and avoiding the minor defects of the standard template. The study recommends focusing on treating some abnormalities in some body patterns, using optical illusions when designing clothes. This is due to the elasticity, softness and luxury of the bias-cut line, which helps hide and avoid the defects of the standard template and adjust them. The study suggested studying the variables of tailoring and their effect on the special-sized clothes group.</p> Rasha Ali Saleh, Bushra Fadel S. Al-Tamimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Received: September 23, 2020 Accepted: October 26, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1440 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Academic Boredom in the Light of some Variables of Academically Excellent Intermediate Stage Students https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1443 <p>Academic boredom is one of the most emotional problems that arouse an individual's fatigueness and lowers his interest. This is because of the environment's low efficiency and of spending long monotonous time. This state is characterized by having lack of interest, difficulties in concentration, and the desire to leave the class.&nbsp; It is considered one of the most prominent forms of boredom widespread among students and the most severe and dangerous one that has negative effects and severe psychological and social problems. The current research aims to investigate a randomly selected sample of 335 students from the first and third grades at the directorates of education (Karkh and Rusafa) who suffers from academic boredom. Similarily, a statistical analysis sample of (350) students was selected. The researchers constructed the academic boredom scale, and then ensured its psychometric properties (Validity, Reliability, Discrimination). Furthermore, they used some statistical means, t-test for one and two Independent samples, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results have shown that the study sample suffers from academic boredom at a low level. There are no significant differences at the level (0.05) on the scale of academic boredom according to the gender variable (male-female). There are statistically significant differences at the level (0.05) on the scale of academic boredom according to the grade variable (first and third grades) at a medium level and in favor of the third grade.</p> Zahra Saad Al- Abboudi, Intisar Kamal Al-Anni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Received: August 28, 2020 Accepted: November 8, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1443 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Cognitive Implications of Usage-Based Approach https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1444 <p>Tremendous efforts have been exerted to understand first language acquisition to facilitate second language learning. The problem lies in the difficulty of mastering English language and adapting a theory that helps in overcoming the difficulties facing students. This study aims to apply Thomasello's theory of language mastery through usage. It assumes that adults can learn faster than children and can learn the language separately, and far from academic education. Tomasello (2003) studied the stages of language acquisition for children, and developed his theory accordingly. Some studies, such as: (Ghalebi and Sadighi, 2015, Arvidsson, 2019; Munoz, 2019; Verspoor and Hong, 2013) used this theory when examining language acquisition. Thus, the present study implies adopting Tomasello's approach represented by his usage-based theory when examining Iraqi adults’ English language acquisition. The participants, who were (20) in number, were asked to watch series and show what they learn through re-enacting scenes. The Data were collected qualitatively through observations, focus group discussion, peer review, and interviews. Results have shown that: &nbsp;a remarkable progress in the participants' performance, the participants' responses to using English through increasing their language stock, the ability to use language during the development of their linguistic repertoire increased their self-confidence to participate in conversations they were trying to avoid. As a result, the experiment achieved its objectives by finding that use-based theory is a cognitive linguistic approach that can facilitate the learning tasks.</p> Raghad Fahmi Aajami ##submission.copyrightStatement## Received: October 15, 2020 Accepted: November 28, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1444 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Expressing the Bewilderment of the Modern Man through Silence in Samuel Beckett’s Happy Days https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1445 <p>Samuel Beckett’s<em> Happy Days </em>(1961) clearly portrays a lack of communication among the characters of the play which refers to the condition of modern man. This failure of communication led Samuel Beckett to use a lot of pauses and silences in all plays written instead of using words. To express the bewilderment of the modern man during the 20<sup>th</sup> century, Beckett adopts the use of no language strategy in the dramatic works. After World War II, people were without hope, religion, food, jobs, homes, or even countries. Beckett gave them a voice. He used a dramatic language out of everyday things, in which silence was part of the syntax as a poetic repetition. Language is no more important to the modern man; instead, he used silence to express his feelings. For him, silence is more powerful than the words themselves. That’s why; long and short pauses can be seen throughout all Beckett’s plays. In this play, the characters chose not to communicate; instead, they kept silent because they failed to interact with each other or even with themselves. The nature of this study is qualitative and objective; it textually analyzes the text to show the state of the modern man during 20th century. As a conclusion, one can say that Beckett’s use of pauses and silences was to express the bewilderment of the modern man and the inner conflict inside of him. Moreover, the modern man has lost his communication with other people as a result of that conflict.</p> Basaad Maher Mhayyal, Munthir A. Sabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Received: August 17, 2020 Accepted: October 20, 2020 https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1445 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100