Journal of the College of Education for Women 2022-03-31T19:56:51+00:00 Journal of College of Education for Women Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of the College of Education for Women is a double-blind referred scientific quarterly journal established in 1990 by the College of Education for Women-University of Baghdad. From <strong>1990 </strong>till <strong>2004</strong>, the publications were only as hard copies. Since <strong>2005 </strong>and <strong>up-to the present</strong>, the journal has started to publish its issues in two versions: hardcopy and electronic, and so it has now two international standard serial number, P-ISSN: <strong>1680-8738 </strong>and E-ISSN:<a title="ISSN" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <strong>2663-547X</strong></a>, respectively. It has further a deposit number of Books and Documents in Baghdad, no. (<strong>1309</strong>) in 2009. It also has a mailbox, bearing the number (<strong>47116</strong>).</p> <p>The journal welcomes high quality manuscripts investigating some human and social science topics related to the fields that reflect the eight departments of the College of Education for Women. These Fields include:</p> <ol> <li><strong>Arabic Language </strong></li> <li><strong> English Language </strong></li> <li><strong> Quranic Studies </strong></li> <li><strong> Educational and Psychological research </strong></li> <li><strong> Research in Kindergarten </strong></li> <li><strong> Geography </strong></li> <li><strong> History </strong></li> <li><strong> Sociology </strong></li> </ol> <p>Journal of the College of Education is research-oriented. It encourages submissions that incorporate theories and methodologies, and that are interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary reflecting the application of qualitative/quantitative/mixed mode paradigms and research designs. It publishes full-length original articles, papers extracted from thesis and dissertations, and review articles.The journal provides immediate open access to its contents to enhance a greater global exchange of knowledge. Moreover, articles are published with particular <strong>DOI</strong> numbers and are distributed under<a title="cc" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong> CC BY</strong></a> license.</p> The Phonetic Connotation of the Appending Letter Alef in the Holy Qur’an 2022-03-31T17:08:13+00:00 Ebtisam Abdulhusayn Sulttan Alqaseer <p>Appending is a morphological term which means the addition of one or two letters to a structure to be similar to other structures of well-known abstractor additional nouns and verbs constructions. The goal of appending is to organize what have been expanded linguistically and collect similarities to reduce the syntactic rules. This is because the appended word exists for expanding purposes; however, it has no construction of its own. An appending was included with another construction with mentioning the additional letter. This by itself means that appending as a process is a term that helps organize rather than expand language. Scholars further noticed that the appending letter is not semantically significant, and so it differs from the increasing letter (letters of sa’altomoniha).&nbsp; However, since every addition in the structure has an additional meaning, the appending letter must have a benefit as well. Besides, the hypothesis here is having an audio suggestive connotation adds to the different lexical, contextual and figurative connotations of a word. This connotation is the connotation of multiplication, exaggeration and amplification of the appending letters in general, and the connotation of extension and lengthening in the letters of extension in particular. The approach adopted follows the words attached to the Holy Qur’an and the scholars’ sayings of appending descriptively and analytically.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 News of Zubarah Family- Unionists in Nishapur and their Scientific Contributions in the two Centuries (4-6 AH/10-12 AD) 2022-03-31T13:44:53+00:00 Shaymaa Fadhel Abdel Hamid Al Anbaki <p>This research is concerned with qualitatively studying the history of an ancient family, one of the most prominent noble, Alawite families, that assumed the position of the Student Union for the Alawite Supervision in the city of Nishapur in Khorasan during the centries (4-6 H./ 10-12 A.H.). Thus, the research aims to investgate the historical news, and the outstanding Zubarah figures who experience the supereme the religious, historical and scientific position in Khorasan generally and Nishapur particularily. It further aims at arriving at the true meaning of the name Zubarah, and to whom it was called, and the extent of this family’s affiliation to the noble Alawi House, and how they moved to live and settle in the cities of the East, including Tabaristan and Abe, then Nishapur, and the establishment of the Alawi and student union to manage the affairs of the honorable gentlemen, take care of them to preserve lineage from confusion, and to look into religious, social and scientific affairs. Thus, the importance of the research lies in knowing everything related to the Zubarah family and what they presented during their presence in the position of the student union in the East in the service of the Prophet and the upper house. The research is like reviving a mention of the glories of this family with a pioneering role in Khorasan, especially the cities of Nishapur and Bayhaq. The research ends with a set of conclusions, such as: the name of Zubarah family goes back to its elder grandfather, Mohammad Al-Akbar, nicknamed Zubarah. This is because when he got angery on right things, his voice got higher and his face got redder, like a lion when he roars.&nbsp; Their affinity goes back to Al-Husseini Alawi House. Zubarah family had many followers in Nishapur and Bayhaq, who had a religious and social role and distinguished scientific contributions in various sciences and knowledge.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Reality of Evaluating Teacher Performance in the Sultanate of Oman in Light of Global Models 2022-03-31T13:54:18+00:00 Moza Ali Al shiyadi Salim Saleem Al Ghanboosi Aisha Salim Al-Harthi <p>The aim of the research is to reveal the reality of teacher performance evaluation in the Sultanate of Oman in light of some global models. The study followed a qualitative descriptive research design. Seven forms of teacher formative and summative assessments were analyzed. Besides, an analytical template was developed, consisting of six areas related to the teaching performance of teachers. These included: lesson planning and preparation, learning environment, education, professional development, student academic, and community and parental partnership. The study reached a number of results; the most notable is the lack of change of forms for more than a decade despite the rapid development of the educational system in the sultanate in areas close to the teacher. It has also found that the formative evaluation focuses only on his/her rile in the classroom, such as lesson planning, preparation and learning environment. Further, it does not focus on his/her role outside the classroom, such as professional development, and community and parental partnership. Additionally, this evaluation is not based on any professional standards. Therefore, its tools, standards, and assessment need to be improved. The study has also shown that the final evaluation needs do not have sufficient standards. Additionally, both types of assessments do not relate to each other. Based on these results, the study has recommended to improve teacher performance evaluation in the Sultanate of Oman.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Evaluating Teacher Preparation Programs in Scientific Disciplines at the Faculty of Education in Al-Aqsa University in Light of the Requirements of the Labor Market 2022-03-31T14:16:34+00:00 Abd-Alkarearim.M.A. Farajallah Lina Ziyad Sbaih <p>The current study seeks to evaluate teacher preparation programs in the scientific disciplines at the College of Education in Al-Aqsa University in the light of the requirements of the labor market. It further aims to reveal the significance of the differences in the sample members’ response averages of to the availability of labor market requirements in the program that prepares the teacher of scientific disciplines at the Faculty of Education in Al-Aqsa University taking into account the (gender, program) variables. The study followed the descriptive analytical approach, and so a questionnaire was distributed to a sample of scientific discipline students in the teacher preparation program adopted in Al-Aqsa University, (200) male and female students. The study has reached a number of findings that confirm the availability of labor market requirements, particularly those related to vocational, literacy, and life skills in the program adopted. Their response amounted to (75.7%), which is a large percentage. The most important results showed that there was no difference in the responses of the members of the study sample regarding the availability of labor market requirements in teacher preparation programs taking into account the variables of gender and specialization. The results of the study have also revealed that the programs for preparing the teachers of scientific disciplines are largely compatible with the requirements of the labor market. The total percentage of the dimension of harmonizing the programs of the labor market to the teacher preparation programs of scientific disciplines at the College of Education in Al-Aqsa University in the governorates of Gaza reached (70.7%).</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Impact of a Counseling Program with a Cognitive Reconstruction Method on the Development of the Psychological Hardness among Middle School Students 2022-03-31T14:33:49+00:00 Khalid Ibrahim Mahmoud <p>The current research aims to determine the impact of the cognitive reconstruction program on the development of psychological hardness among middle school students through the experimental verification of three hypotheses. The research sample consisted of (16) out of (450) students selected from Ibn Rushud preparatory school- Al-Rusafa 2. These participants have been randomly distributed into two equal groups. The researcher has used the method of cognitive reconstruction with the experimental group, whereas with the controlling group, he used nothing. The researcher has further used the scale of psychological hardness of Kobassa with the participants; the scale has been built in a way that suits the sample of the study, which consisted of (24) items. The distinctive and validity items of the scale have been extracted by the jury members and experts using the method of face and construction validity, which completed the preparatory procedures of the psychometric scale. As for the reliability of the study, it has been measured by the researcher through the use of Alfackronbach factor, which reached (0, 83). The number of the program sessions reached (12) sessions; each session is of 45 minutes distributed for (6) weeks; that is, (2) sessions per week. Results have shown that there are no statistically significant differences between the scores of the experimental and control groups regarding the psychological hardness scale at the level of significance 0.05. This indicates that the counseling program according to the method in which it has been prepared has a clear effect on the enhancement of psychological hardness among the students of the preparatory stage.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Social Risks and Development Gaps in Iraq: A Social Study in the City of Baghdad 2022-03-31T14:40:24+00:00 Mais Mohammed Kadhum <p>Social risks posed a great challenge to the development path in Iraq, which resulted in widening the development gaps, whether these gaps were between rural and embargoed areas, or between Iraqi governorates, and the gender gap. Besides, the nature of the reciprocal relationship between the social risks and the development process requires the adoption of development trends that are sensitive to the risks that take upon themselves the prompt and correct response to these risks, away from randomness and confusion that Iraq suffered from for decades. However, currently, the situation has differed a great deal. This is because the size and types of such gaps have widened and become more complicated than before; a matter which has led to have clear development gaps due to the differences and distances ensued among the Iraqi governments, the areas of rural and urban, in addition to the gender gap.&nbsp; The research has adopted the social sampling method by building a scale consisting of (21) paragraphs and four-way answer alternatives (agree completely, agree, do not agree, do not agree at all). The scale has been applied to a sample of (100) sociology specialist respondents. The research reached several conclusions, the most important of which are: The nature of the rapid and continuous social changes imposed new forms of social risks that are not familiar before and which are difficult to deal with. The problem of persistent inequality at the level of societies and individuals is one of the most serious challenges that can generate new opportunities for more deadly social risks.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Human Properties of Singapore’s People and their Impact on the State Might 2022-03-31T14:59:59+00:00 Israa Kadhum Jassim Al-Husseini <p>The research aims to study some of the human characteristics of the state of Singapore to know the impact of these characteristics on the strength of the state, its development and. The research included two aspects, theoretical and analytical, using the descriptive analytical method, force analysis method, as well as the historical method. The data was analyzed according to mathematical equations, including the size of the country's population, the extraction of the population growth rate and the concept of age structure, where some indicators related to this concept have been explained. The researcher reached a set of results, the most important of which were: that the population size of the state of Singapore in the period between (1970 - 2020) has been on a continuous increase since its independence. However, it has adopted a population policy that suits the area of ​​the state for the period (2010-2020). The increase continued to rise to reach (665,609, 7,570,240, and 861,7474 people) for the years (2030, 2040 and 2050), respectively. This is an indication of a real transformation of the demographic contribution, which constitutes a powerful factor that gives the state an influential position in international regional relations and a support for the demographic revolution despite the small area of ​​the Republic of Singapore. The results of the research also showed instability in population growth rates during the past fifty years, ranging between the lowest growth rate of 1.3% and the highest growth rate of 2.9% for the period between (1970 - 2020). Accordingly, the population increase in Singapore is not only related to natural increase, but is greatly affected by the factor of external migration, whose effects became clear during the last period of (2010-2020).</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Characteristics of Rainfall in Dry and Wet Seasons in Iraq 2022-03-31T17:01:02+00:00 Maisara Adnan Abdul Rahman <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research aims at making a comparative survey between the dry season in (2017-2018) and the wet season (2018-2019) in Iraq concerning the variation of rainfall and pressure systems responsible for such a difference. In this paper, seven climatological stations have been selected: Mosul, Kirkuk, Khanaqin, Baghdad, Rutba, Diwaniyah and Basra. Results have shown that the first category of rainfall of the two seasons has recorded a higher number of rainy days in comparison with the second and third categories with a total of 274 day in a dry season and 403 day of a wet season. Further, the total amount of the annual continuous rain is higher than the total of thunderstorms in a dry season as well as in the majority of wet season stations except in Khanaqin, Baghdad. As for the highest daily precipitation, Kirkuk station has recorded 102.9 mm in a dry season, whereas Mosul station has recorded 308.2 in the wet season. It further occupied the highest monthly precipitation; it reached 291 mm in a dry season and 884.3 in a wet season. The study have found that El Nino phenomenon, which represents the negative values, has occurred during December and February while La Nina, which represents the positive values, has occurred during the rest of the year in the dry season. On the other hand, in wet seasons, the negative values (El Nino) continued for seven months while the positive ones (La Nina) continued for two months. Findings of surficial maps analysis have revealed that the highest overall frequencies and continuation have been for the Sudanese depression individually or jointly with the three categories of the dry season. Cold anticyclones and the Sudanese depression (individually or jointly) have recorded the highest frequencies, and continuation for the first category and the latter depression for the second and third categories of the wet season.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Spatial Variation of the Manifestations of Visual Pollution in the Municipality of Shula 2022-03-31T18:13:23+00:00 Helen Anwar Hassan Al-Khazraji Rafal Ibrahim Talib <p>The research deals with the problem of visual pollution, as it is one of the most important urban problems that cities suffer from. The concept of visual pollution has recently emerged to describe the deformation and degradation of the urban environment. Visual pollution is defined as any component of the surrounding environment that is inconsistent and not homogeneous with its natural and human components. The volume of visual pollution has doubled due to the non-compliance with the laws, regulations and controls set by the Municipality of Baghdad by the citizens, and to the weak municipal role that the municipality plays in implementing these laws. Therefore, it has become necessary to know the manifestations of visual pollution and their geographical distribution, and the variations between the neighborhoods of the Shuala. The research has adopted the field work to document the manifestations of visual pollution through photography. It has further involved using a questionnaire that was distributed on a random stratified sample of (400 questionnaires) distributed among the four districts of Al-Shula, Al-Hurriya, Al-Harbiya, and Al-Abbasiya). The number of questionnaires for each neighborhood reached (100 questionnaires), to find out the various manifestations of visual pollution within the neighborhoods of Al-Shula. The spread of the manifestations of visual pollution in the municipality of Al-Shula is considered part of the daily life of the citizens. It has also found that some variables have effectively contributed to the spread of the phenomenon of visual pollution through the division of heterogeneous residential units and heights of the non-buildings.&nbsp; Moreover, there have been signs of harmonization and the exploitation of balconies in a non-civilized manner and asymmetry of the urban fabric of Al-Shula.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Logical Pragmatics of Arguments in Argumentation 2022-03-31T13:21:43+00:00 Waleed Ridha Hammoodi Al-Jwaid Christopher W. Tindale <p>Logic is understood so far as a product perspective, either formal or informal. The topic is still, though interesting, imprecise, sketchy and problematic. Besides, the relevance of logic to linguistics has not been explained. This research focuses on dealing with logic as a product and a process. It introduces how logic is relevant to understanding language. Logic is surely not irrelevant to real human language. In this research, we coin 'logical pragmatics' to refer to "the structure of an argumentation and its parts used by the speaker for the purpose of persuasion to have an effect in the addressee and passive audience”. As such, the research mainly aims at providing a definition of "logical pragmatics" as well as developing an ideal model for it. To accomplish this aim, the research studies what this approach entails and the relevance of logic and pragmatically oriented contributions to the field of argument and argumentation. The study mainly concluded that in real communication, simple logical relations become very complex and part of a wider context where we have a speaker's communicative intention, a hearer's communicative inference, and context.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Pragmatic Study of Identity Representation in American Political Speeches 2022-03-31T13:33:59+00:00 Baidaa Hasan Nashmi Wafaa Sahib Mehdi <p>Identity is an influential and flexible concept in social sciences and political studies. The basic sense of identity is looking for uniqueness. In one sense, it is a sign of identification with those we assume they are similar to us or at least in some significant ways they are so. Globalization, migration, modern technologies, media and political conflicts are argued to have a crucial effect on identity representation in terms of the political perspectives specifically in the United States of America. This paper endeavors to investigate how American politicians represent their identities in speeches delivered in different periods of time namely from 2015 to 2018 in terms of the pragmatic paradigm. Three randomly selected speeches by famous American politicians are chosen for the analysis. This paper aims to answer these questions: What are the possible types of identity that are represented in the American political speeches? What are the pragmatic phenomena utilized to manifest identity in the contexts under investigation? Which pragmatic strategies are highly made use of in representing identity in the contexts under scrutiny? Data analysis shows that different types of identity representations appear in the data like the national and political identity, among others. Speech acts, reference, impoliteness and maxim breaching are the pragmatic phenomena that are utilized in the manifestation of identity in the American political speeches. The first two are the most utilized ones among the other pragmatic theories.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022