Journal of the College of Education for Women 2022-06-29T20:11:58+00:00 Journal of College of Education for Women Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Journal of the College of Education for Women ( JCEW) </strong> is a double-blind referred scientific quarterly journal established in 1990 by the College of Education for Women-University of Baghdad. From <strong>1990 </strong>till <strong>2004</strong>, the publications were only as hard copies. Since <strong>2005 </strong>and <strong>up-to the present</strong>, the journal has started to publish its issues in two versions: hardcopy and electronic, and so it has now two international standard serial number, P-ISSN: <strong>1680-8738 </strong>and E-ISSN: <strong>2663-547X</strong> , respectively. It has further a deposit number of Books and Documents in Baghdad, no. (<strong>1309</strong>) in 2009. It also has a mailbox, bearing the number (<strong>47116</strong>).</p> <p>The journal welcomes high quality manuscripts investigating some human and social science topics related to the fields that reflect the eight departments of the College of Education for Women. These Fields include:</p> <ol> <li><strong>Arabic Language </strong></li> <li><strong> English Language </strong></li> <li><strong> Quranic Studies </strong></li> <li><strong> Educational and Psychological research </strong></li> <li><strong> Research in Kindergarten </strong></li> <li><strong> Geography </strong></li> <li><strong> History </strong></li> <li><strong> Sociology </strong></li> </ol> <p>Journal of the College of Education is research-oriented. It encourages submissions that incorporate theories and methodologies, and that are interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary reflecting the application of qualitative/quantitative/mixed mode paradigms and research designs. It publishes full-length original articles, papers extracted from thesis and dissertations, and review articles.The journal provides immediate open access to its contents to enhance a greater global exchange of knowledge. Moreover, articles are published with particular <strong>DOI</strong> numbers and are distributed under<a title="cc" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong> CC BY</strong></a> license.</p> The Degree to which Islamic Education Teachers Employ the Strategy of Directed Discovery in Teaching to Develop Higher-Order Thinking Skills 2022-06-29T13:34:56+00:00 Mohammed Yousif Ahmed Elsanosi <p>The study aimed to know the degree to which Islamic education teachers employ the strategy of directed discovery in teaching to develop higher thinking skills (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) among sixth-grade students at the basic stage in East Nile Province, Khartoum State - Sudan. The researcher used the descriptive-analytical method, and adopted a questionnaire that consisted of (15) indicators representing the skills of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation as a tool of the study. A random sample of (175) Islamic education teachers was selected, from the Department of Basic Education. The data were analyzed according to the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) program, and the results of the study have shown that the use of the directed discovery strategy by Islamic education teachers came (with a medium degree) in the axes of the indicators of the tool (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation), as well as in its calculation of their averages concerned with the three skills. This requires much more attention to be given to the employment of the directed discovery. As such a strategy help students to develop their skills and solve the problems they face. The researcher has recommended the necessity of creating applications and programs that help Islamic education teachers to develop their teaching capabilities using new and advanced methods of teaching, in order to raise their competencies and develop their students' higher thinking skills.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Reality of Teachers’ Use of Modern Technologies in Teaching Arabic as a Second Language in Terms of Objectives and Selection Foundations at the Institute of Arabic Language in Umm Al-qura University Mamoun Eltigani Hassan Eldali 2022-06-29T13:41:28+00:00 Mamoun Eltigani Hassan Eldali <p>This study aims to know the degree of importance and the availability of the enhancing specifications of the educational process, and the way its objectives are achieved. Such a step involves using educational techniques, laying the selection foundations, knowing the methods of their employment and tracking the obstacles that limit this employment in teaching Arabic to non-native speakers. To achieve these objectives, the study followed a descriptive approach, and collected the necessary data through an integrated questionnaire prepared for the purpose of describing the phenomenon or topic. This approach was adopted, as it is characterized by being comprehensive, focuses on collecting data related and necessary to the topic under study. It further suits research papers that deal with educational problems. The study has concluded that modern educational technologies are highly recommended to be used in teaching languages. Such technologies further meet the learners’ needs in terms of achieving special and behavioral goals, supporting the educational content, and activating the teaching methods to achieve the general goals of the educational process if attention was paid to the way they are used and to their governing rules. The study has also concluded that the most important obstacles in teaching using technology are lack of training, ignorance and lack of knowledge of the methods and of employing them in the educational situation. The study has recommended the necessity of having a good preparation for the educational process based on technology, and working to provide, update and follow-up on its maintenance. More so, the interest in teaching Arabic to non-native speakers through employing modern technologies in proportion to its elements and skills should be enhanced.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Content Analysis of Social Studies Book at the Secondary School in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Curricula System- Joint Program) in the Light of the Cultural Intelligence Dimensions 2022-06-29T13:49:07+00:00 Lulwa Ali Ibrahim Al-hanaki <p>The study aimed at recognizing the availability of the cultural intelligence dimensions in social studies book at the high school in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (curricula system- joint program). The study used the descriptive approach and content analysis method. As tools of the study, the study adopted a list of cultural list of indicators and dimensions that suits the secondary stage social curricula. It further adopted a content analysis form designed to analyze the social studies book in the secondary school in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study has reached several results, the most significant results were: There is a difference in including the cultural intelligence dimensions in social studies book at high school in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (curricula system- joint program). The cognitive dimension is the most included dimension with a frequency of 2497, representing 14%. However, the motivational dimension is the second with a 1019 frequency that represents 29.99%. The&nbsp; third and the last is the behavioral dimension with a 259 frequency, i.e., 6.86%. The results of the study have illustrated the existence of a disparity between the book units in incorporating the cultural intelligence dimensions. This is because the second unit has come first with a frequency of 845 (i.e., 22.38%) while the forth unit was the sixth and the last with a 516 frequency (i.e., 13.66%).</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Degree of Social Studies Teachers’ Knowledge of the Dimensions of Citizenship Education at Basic Education Schools in the Sultanate of Oman 2022-06-29T14:02:09+00:00 Humaid Muslem Said Alsaidi Ahmed Saeed Nasser Al-Hadhrami Fahad Abdullah Mohammed Al-Buloshi <p>Citizenship education is the effective educational tool in building a citizen who is able to participate in building his country. This can only come through the educational efforts that teachers make in the classroom. Such a step requires teachers to have knowledge of citizenship education, its principles, and the foundations for its development. Thus, the study aims to examine the degree of social studies teachers' knowledge of the dimensions of citizenship education at the basic education schools in the Sultanate of Oman. It also aims to examine its relationship with a set of variables. The researchers used the quantitative descriptive approach to achieve the objectives of the study. It further adopted a test tool, which consisted in its final form of five areas: citizenship knowledge, rights and duties, national identity, community partnership, and global and digital citizenship.&nbsp;The test was divided later into (38) multiple-choice questions. After verifying the validity and reliability of this tool, it was applied to a sample of (200) male and female teachers. The results of the study have shown that the degree of knowledge of social studies teachers in citizenship education was average, reaching the arithmetic level of (57.67%). Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences in the level of knowledge of social studies teachers of citizenship education with respect to the variables of gender and educational qualification in the fields of citizenship education. Accordingly, the researchers have recommended that the citizenship education course should be included in teacher preparation programs at public and private universities in the Sultanate of Oman. Moreover, the concepts and principles of citizenship education should be included in the school curricula.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Predictive Ability of the University Grade Point Average in the Specialized Test Score for thAbility of the University Grade Point Average in the Specialized Test Score for the Teacher Position in the Ministry of Education in the Sultanate of Oman 2022-06-29T14:10:55+00:00 Sharif Alsoudi Mohammed Al Saqri Ibrahim Al Wahaibi <p>the most important purposes and uses of the test results in the educational sector. This is because the quality of tests is related to their ability to predict the learner's behavior in the future, and the accuracy of the educational and administrative decisions that are taken in light of their results. The study aimed accordingly to reveal the predictive ability of the university Grade Point Average (GPA) in the Score of the specialized test for the position of teacher in the Ministry of Education in the Sultanate of Oman. It further aimed to investigate the differences in the predictive ability according to the specialization and academic year using the descriptive approach. The sample of the study consisted of (349) s/he students enrolled in the educational qualification diploma program at A'Sharqiyah University, who took the specialized test for the position of teacher. The results of the study indicated that the GPA explains (13%) of the variance in the result of the specialized test for the position of teacher. In addition, there are statistically significant differences in the percentage of GPA in the result of the specialized test for the position of teacher to the scientific specialization and in favor of the humanities. Besides, there are no differences in this percentage due to the variable of the academic year. The study has recommended to continue using the SET for the employment purposes and admission to the educational qualification diploma program &nbsp;after making some improvements on it.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Factors Affecting the Students' Choice of a Major at King Abdulaziz University 2022-06-29T14:27:49+00:00 Jamilh Ayman Mohammed Omar Mathboot Wejdan Ahmed Al-Qarni Maryam Ibrahim Ghabban <p>The present study aimed at examining the factors that affect the choice of A major among a sample of BA fe(male) students at the levels 3-8 in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. To meet this objective, a descriptive survey method was used together with a questionnaire that consisted of 4 axes to answer the central question: What are the factors affecting the choice of a major at the university? Results have shown that the item that measured the students’ ability to choose the major ranked (First); it was concerned with the effect on the students' choice of his/her major in the university. On the last position and with respect to this effect came the professional tendencies and desires. Results have also shown that there were other differences of a statistical significance in favor of a literary major on the four axes of the questionnaire. Besides, there were no differences between the two sexes regarding the choice of a university major. The study has recommended the need for boosting the role of students' awareness, and&nbsp; holding workshops and cultural courses after joining college, as well as introducing majors, their fields and the application of a professional tendency scale in the preparatory stage in the university.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Cognitive Motive of the Kindergarten Child 2022-06-29T15:18:45+00:00 Susan Abdulla Mohamed Jameela Raheem Abd <p>Encouraging children towards the cognitive motivation through the discovery and knowledge of the environment around them is essential. Thus, during the two researchers’ supervision of the practical lessons that involved the female students’ application of their experience in the Applied Kindergarten Laboratory, it has been noticed that there was a difference in the cognitive motivation of kindergarten children. In order to reinforce the research problem, the two researchers sent an open questionnaire to a sample of randomly selected kindergarten teachers from Al-Karkh and Al-Rasafa sides. The responses collected accentuated the researchers’ sense of the existing problem. To achieve the aim of the study represented by examining the kindergarten child’s cognitive motive, and the differences of the motive in terms of gender variable (male, female), a sample of (150) (males, females) children of an age ranging between (5-6) years of the preliminary stage was selected. The sample was randomly selected from the governmental kindergartens in Baghdad from its two sides Karkh and Rusafa. The two researchers prepared a triple alternatives measure of cognitive motive, which consisted of (45) items divided into two fields. The first field that was concerned with knowing the environment that surrounds the child consisted of (26) items, whereas the second field, which is about problem solving, consisted of (19) items. The results have shown that kindergartens children have a cognitive motive. To achieve the validity of the test, the researchers relied on the logic and constructive validity indicators. Moreover, to estimate the reliability of the study, Cronbach Alpha was adopted. The study have concluded that &nbsp;there were no statistically significant differences between the male/female variable with respect to the cognitive motive.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Chicago School in Urban Sociology: A Socio-Historical Approach on the Pragmatic Thought Influence as a Theoretical Frame of Reference in it-1892-2020 2022-06-29T15:28:46+00:00 Mahir Abdulwahid Aziz <p>The present theoretical study analyzes the legacy of the Chicago School of Urban Sociology and evaluates it in the light of the growth and development of Chicago City and the establishment of sociology in it. Sociology has become an academic discipline recognized in the United States of America in the late nineteenth century, particularly, after the establishment of the first department of sociology in the University of Chicago in 1892. That was during the period of the rapid industrialization and sustainable growth of the Chicago City. The Chicago School relied on Chicago City in particular, as one of the American cities that grew and expanded rapidly in the first two decades of the twentieth century. At the end of the nineteenth century, the city witnessed the arrival of large numbers of immigrants from Europe and South America. Accordingly, this study aims to examine the heritage of the Chicago School in depth, focusing on its origin, genesis, and development of the Chicago School of Urban Sociology. It also sheds light on&nbsp; its emergence and dominance over the American academic edifice in the first two decades of the twentieth century. The study further aims to investigate the role of the pragmatic thought in the growth and development of this school as a prominent scientific edifice among all American universities. The golden age of this school and the creativity of its pioneers of the scholars continued until the mid-forties. Thus, the study is to explain the causes of its decline after the mid-forties of the last century. Then, it evaluates the reality of this school after the forties until the first two decades of the current millennium. The study concluded that although much of the urban sociology tradition in the Chicago School and its deeply rooted sub-fields was and remains important, constituting a centre to this discipline, this does not mean that the styles and methods of studies conducted under the Chicago School umbrella should be applied to the urban life of today’s cities. This is due to their inadequacy with the reality of urban life in industrial cities today. That is in return is because of the radical transformations at all levels, including economic, social, political and cultural, as well as the modern communication technologies that have changed the face of the world through what is called today globalization.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gender and Urban Studies as an Interactive Approach and Integrated Curriculum 2022-06-29T15:33:40+00:00 Zahraa Imad Hussain Al-Hussaini <p>The integration of gender in urban studies is considered a goal and objective to build a society characterized by justice and equality. It further allows all its residents to enjoy the opportunities to live in a safe urban life. Based on the that, the limitations of the research and its field of interest related to the relationship between gender and urban studies have become clear. The insufficient knowledge in this regard considers gender as a concept that does not exist in itself, but rather overlaps and intersects with several concepts and studies, including urban studies. Thus, it has become necessary to adopt a descriptive methodology that helps reach a theoretical framework to explain the beginnings of such an interaction and integration between the two concepts. Such a step in return helps clarify the chronology of a number of conferences and their role in shedding light on gender issues focusing on the 2030 agenda. This is because such agenda is related to the near future and obligates all countries to achieve their goals where gender is one of them. Accordingly, the present work poses the question: Are gender studies and urban studies reciprocal and collaborative? The research ends with a set of conclusions, such as: the gender analysis of urban issues provides new insights and an explicit introduction to the study of gender and its effects in urban studies. They further illustrate the role of such insights on the development and prosperity of these cities to be suitable for all. The research has recommended integrating gender-sensitive planning strategies, as they represent a key factor to policy makers, urban planners, and designers in their policies, programs and decision-making processes. They also help create a sustainable and inclusive urban development.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 EFL Student- Teachers' Perception in the Culture of Thinking 2022-06-29T12:31:22+00:00 Shaima Mahdi Saalh Danya Haqee Esmaeel <p>Many studies have recommended implying the skills and strategies of creative thinking, critical thinking, and reflective thinking in EFLT curriculum to overcome EFL teaching-learning process difficulties. It is really necessary to make EFL teachers aware of the importance of cultural thinking and have a high perception of its forces. Culture of thinking consists of eight cultural forces in every learning situation; it helps to shape the group's cultural dynamic. These forces are expectations, language, time, modeling, opportunities, routines, interactions, and environment. This study aims to investigate EFL student-teachers’ perceptions of cultural thinking. The participants are selected randomly from the fourth-stage students at the Department of English Language-College of Education for Women-University of Baghdad. The total population is (105), while the participants are (87) student-teachers. Ritchhart’s (2015) Eight-Cultural-Forces Scale was adopted as a study tool, and its face validity and reliability have been ascertained. It has been concluded that the student-teachers perceive the culture of thinking moderately despite their training program lack any sort of cultural thinking forces<em>.</em></p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 On the Use of the First-Person Pronoun ‘we’ in Final-Year Master Projects of South Algerian EFL Students 2022-06-29T12:53:19+00:00 Bachir Bouhania <p>Literature on the use of the first-person pronoun in abstracts and conclusion sections of final-year projects is limited. In case of Algerian Master students, it is too scant. The present paper aims at filling this gap through a study concerned with students’ and engagement in their final projects (memoirs). This quantitative study examines the use of “we” and its various types, “our- us-I, my, the researcher” in memoirs chosen at random from the d-space portal of the University of Adrar, southern Algeria. Sixty-five papers, submitted in the fields of Linguistics or didactics between 2015 and 2020 and representing nearly half of the whole memoirs’ depository at the library’s d-space, constituted the corpus of study. The descriptive analytical analysis of the findings has shown that the pronouns “we” (exclusive), “our” (inclusive), and the ambiguous “us” are highly employed in general conclusions (GCs) than they are in abstracts. The results clearly suggested that the students’ use of the personal pronouns in GCs rather than in abstracts reflects their awareness to their implications in the paper not only as writers, but also as main researchers, thinkers and interpreters. The conclusions and interpretations have ultimately called for further studies with regard to their pedagogical and academic significance.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Dystopian Future: Social Oppression and Religious Extremism in Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale 2022-06-29T13:00:13+00:00 Nibras Jawad Kadhim <p>Many literary research papers have dealt with the work of Margaret Atwood's <em>The Handmaid's Tale</em> (1985) as a feminist work. However, nearly few studies combine social oppression with religious extremism. To bridge this gap, the present study aims at exploring the use of totalitarian theocracy of terror to oppress its citizens in the name of religion. In other words, it explicates the way religion is used to brutally suppress and exploit people in general and vulnerable women in particular. To meet this objective, the study adopted the qualitative descriptive method to describe how religion is used as a contradictory controlling means in Gilead discourse. It also adopted the Foucault theory in analyzing the data of the study, illustrating the means of terror in the novel, and identifying the features of the Gileadean regime. The study has concluded that the plight of women does not happen in a vacuum. It is a result and a reflection of people's past and present times. It is the extremist religious discourse that almost always contributes to violence and oppression. Finally, the Republic of Gilead highlights a common point between the dark and modern ages where the female citizens lived under the oppressive patriarchal government.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Using Online Platforms to Improve Writing 2022-06-29T13:05:29+00:00 Shahad Saleh Al Asadi Nasser Al-Issa <p>Due to the difficulties that Iraqi students face when writing in the English language, this preliminary study aimed to improve students' writing skills by using online platforms remotely. Sixty first-year students from Al-Furat Al–Awsat Technical University participated in this study. Through these platforms, the researchers relied on stimuli, such as images, icons, and short titles to allow for deeper and more accurate participations. Data were collected through corrections, observations, and feedback from the researchers and peers. In addition, two pre and post-tests were conducted. The quantitative data were analysed by SPSS statistical Editor, whereas the qualitative data were analyzed using the Piot table, an Excel sheet. The results have shown improvement of more than (0.5). This indicates that the study is effective and beneficial for the Iraqi students. Moreover, students were generally satisfied with the experience, as it allowed them to easily communicate, research and rely on themselves when learning to write in English as a foreign language. In addition, semiotic awareness and learning via e-learning platforms can be greatly adopted in teaching English in Iraq. The study has further concluded that there is an improvement in the performance of the Iraqi learners, and that their writing skills were enhanced after the improvement of their semiotic awareness. The is, the improvement of their semiotic awareness has deepened their understanding and enhanced their ability to analyze and criticize. It also developed their communication skills and motivate them to write better and search for details</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Importance of Utilizing Euphemism in Translation and Simultaneous Interpreting 2022-06-29T13:27:13+00:00 Hala Ghanim Mohammed Mawadda Raheem Kokaz <p>Euphemism is an important linguistic phenomenon that tends to soften written or oral expressions. Thus, when translators or interpreters face expressions including euphemism, they need to know how to deal with them. The problem of the current paper lies in the effect of rendering euphemistic expressions inaccurately, as such expressions represent the cultural and terminological sense of the original language. Thus, rendering them improperly will affect the sense of the interpreted speech. For this, it is essential for translators in general and simultaneous interpreters in particular to know the importance of utilizing euphemism in the simultaneous interpreting field, which is the main aim of this paper. To this end, a systematic review has been adopted by shedding light on euphemism types suggested by Williams’ (1975), and euphemism functions suggested by Wijana and Rohmadi (2008), and Nordquist (2018). Some examples were drawn from the common euphemistic topics in which euphemistic expressions and their translation were discussed<strong>. </strong>This study has concluded that to convey the sense and cultural meaning of the original euphemistic expression, simultaneous interpreters must be aware of the types and functions of such euphemism. This is because the previous knowledge of them plays a positive role in the performance of simultaneous interpreters.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022