Journal of the College of Education for Women 2020-08-10T23:59:03+02:00 Journal of College of Education for Women Open Journal Systems <p><strong>&nbsp;Journal of College of Education </strong><strong>for Women</strong></p> <p><strong>E- ISSN: 2663-547X</strong><strong> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; P ISSN:1680-8738<br></strong></p> <p>1-The journal aims at developing and enriching scientific thought through the promotion and dissemination of research and theoretical and applied studies, which are prepared with the pens and hands of Scientists and Thinkers specialized in scientific institutions and professors of Iraqi, Arab and international universities in all languages ​​besides the Arabic language and in order to serve the humanitarian competencies of the college. The scope of the journal is in the areas of Art and Humanities and computer sciences including (Computer sciences, educational sciences, psychology, History, Geography, Kindergartens, English Language and literature, Arabic Language and Literature, Quranic Sciences and Islamic Education, Home Economics , Social Work and religion).</p> <p>The Journal hopes to deepen the scientific origin of the research and studies published in it by presenting it to professors and experts from inside and outside the country in the field of competence to evaluate them scientifically and linguistically.</p> <p>It is a refereed and accredited Journal in the scientific promotions of Iraqi university professors and for the consolidation of scientific research.</p> <p>The journal issued quarterly "with <strong>four issues per year<em>( March, June, September and December)</em> </strong>.The Average manuscript acceptance rate is 30%.</p> <table style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; height: 13px;" width="5"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="m_1159951262695509670fieldName" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; margin: 0px; font-size: 11px; color: #666666; width: 400px; text-align: right; vertical-align: top;">&nbsp;</td> <td class="m_1159951262695509670fieldValue" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; margin: 0px; font-size: 11px; color: #666666; text-align: left; vertical-align: top; font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> The Tribal Power in Contemporary Iraq: A Sociological Analysis 2020-06-07T21:01:38+02:00 Fajir Jodah Alwan <p>This is an empirical investigation of the tribal power in Iraq and its consequences on the socio-political system. A theoretical background concerning thestate kinship, tribe and tribal involvement in politics has been displayed with example of tribal power over people within the social context. Socio-anthropological method of data collection has been used, including a semi-structured interview with a sample of 120 correspondents. The outcome revealed that the feeble and corrupted state (government) play a vital role in encouraging the tribe to be dominant. The people of Iraq are clinging to the tribe regardless of whether they believe in it or not. Although they are aware that the tribe is a pre-state organisation and marred shape of civil society, they have no alternative since the weak government is incapable of restoring law and order. The feeble government is the main factor for tribal strength, the socio-political structure that yield from direct intervention of the invaders and divided the community into fractions, subcultures, religious and ethnic groups creates paralysed socio-political system that incapable to activate law and order, the tribe in turn fill the government power vacancy and enforce its own law and order. Unfortunately, the tribe misuse the power because its rules out of date, but after all, the people reluctantly rely on the tribe entity for protection.</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of School Administration on Academic Achievement in Khartoum International Institute for Arabic language: A Practical Study 2020-06-06T23:12:24+02:00 Mohammed Salih Abdallah Ali <p>School administration has an effective role in stimulating academic achievement, as it is the ideal regulation and activation of material and human power to achieve the goals of the educational process. This role has axes in the form of interests, aids, and specific procedures exercised by the school administration in improving the educational process, and assisting researchers in achieving the highest levels of academic achievement. This activation is achieved through stages of planning, organizing, coordinating, and evaluating.</p> <p>To achieve the aims of this research, the researcher pursued the descriptive analytical approach, which is considered one of the most appropriate approaches to the nature of this type of research. The questionnaire, as well, used a major tool of this approach to analyze the opinions of Arabic language teachers for non-native speakers. The research contained a theoretical and applied framework. The researcher presented in the theoretical framework the concept of school administration, its goals, characteristics, success criteria, elements, as well as an understanding of academic achievement, its components, and means of evaluation. As for the applied framework, it was represented in carrying out a field research in the research community - teachers of the Khartoum International Institute - through the questionnaire with a random sample, and then conducting statistical treatments and special interpretations to come out with a set of results and recommendations represented in thirteen results and six core recommendations</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Educational and Psychological Problems of Distinguished Students 2020-06-07T12:47:27+02:00 Intisar Kamal Qasim <p>The present research aims at identifying the educational problems and psychological problems of distinguished students at the intermediate level. The research sample consists of (246) students who are randomly selected from four distinguished schools (2) in the Karkh\1 and (2) in the Rusafa\2.</p> <p>The researcher has constructed two scales for measuring the educational and psychological problems. She ensures the psychometric characteristics of the two scales. Alph-Cronbach and test-retest methodsare used to ensure reliability. Some statistical treatments are used to find out the aims of research. These treatments include the one-sample T-test, two independent samples T-test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The results show that the sample members do not have educational problems, while they suffer from psychological problems in a moderate degree. Furthermore, there are statistically significant differences in educational/psychological problems in general according to the gender variable in favor of males. The educational and psychological problems are arranged in descending order according to their percentage to identify the five most prominent educational problems as follows:</p> <p>The eighth problemweights(80)</p> <p>The sixth problem weights(68.67(</p> <p>The twelfth problem&nbsp; weights(68)</p> <p>The fourth problem&nbsp; weights(67.67)</p> <p>Sixteenth problem weights(66.33(</p> <p>The psychological problems are listed as follows:</p> <p>The twenty-sixth problem has reached (82.67 .(</p> <p>The eighteenth problem has reached (79.67(.</p> <p>The third problem&nbsp; has reached (78).</p> <p>The fifteenth problem has reached (77, 67).</p> <p>The eleventh problem has reached (76.33).</p> <p>The results show that there is a direct accelerated relationship between educational problems and psychological problems since the value of the correlation coefficient is (0.24).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Psychological Intentions in Hadiths 2020-06-06T23:12:23+02:00 Anwar Zuhair Noori <p>The present study aims to shed light on psychological intentions in some prophetic hadiths and present practical models and realistic applications that reveal the aim behind Prophet Mohammed’s actions and speech. This study relied on a descriptive and deductive approach. It included three demands. The first demand provided a glimpse of the theoretical and conceptual framework of psychological intentions and their most important classifications. The second request tackled the history of Makassed thought in the Prophet’s hadiths. The third requirement dealt with the presentation of the physical, mental, and psychological intentions in Sunnah. The results revealed that The Islamic religion seeks to achieve happiness for the human being in this world and hereafter. This leads to the spread of both psychological and societal peace. Hence, religion should be employed in what came for it. The study also concluded that it is necessary to choose the noble prophetic traditions since it stipulates the psychological values ​​and methods to return to the right path which are the Qur’an and Sunnah in light of the prevalence of current mental illnesses. The study reached many physical, mental and psychological purposes through inferring them from the Prophet‘s noble hadiths.</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Obese Women and Choosing Ready-made Clothes: Difficulties and Choices 2020-06-06T23:12:22+02:00 Shaimaa Khaleel Fadhil <p>Thisstudy aims to determine the specifications of obese women accordingto the heightand type of obesity. It also aimstoidentify the significance of differences in choosing ready-made clothes for the research sample. Finally, the significance of differences in choosing ready-made clothes according to the variable of binaryclassification ofobesity is also identified.The study sample includes obese women: employees, non-employees and students with the age group (18-50) years.The weights and lengths of the sample have been taken to suit the group of obese women.Aquestionnaire in the form of an open question was distributed among (50) obese womenso as to extract the items of the questionnaire. After that, the questionnaire was distributed among (100) obese women to obtain answers. Thedata were statistically analyzed and the BMI indicated thatthere were four types of obesity for the sample studied: overweight and high obesity, very high obesity, excessive obesity, and obese to the extreme.Itwas called abinary classification. The first type included (42) obese women,whilethe second type included (58) obese women .The bodies of the sample were identified: (22%)of the sample representedshort obese women,the ratio of (68%) represented obese women of medium-length, and the proportion of (10%)represented tall obese women. It has become clear through the recognition of the significance of differences when choosing clothes in general, that&nbsp; they areall statistically significantexcept for the seventh item (the best clothes are those with dark-colors, because they make me look thinner). Besides,there are no individual differencesin the sample responses in favor of the answer (sometimes) at the rate of (5.180).</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Spatial Analysis of Soil Characteristics and its Effect on Determining the Susceptibility of lands of the RasheedRegion: A Study in Soil Geography 2020-06-06T23:12:22+02:00 Aseel Majeed Ahmed Jinan Abd Al Ameer Abass <p>Twelve pends were selected and distributed on three verticals transects paths on the Tigers river in Al Rasheed county.Passing through land covers, that classified and covers the whole region. Based on the 8 Landsat of the year 2015. It was oriental classified by using Erdas 10.2 . The pedons were distributed on the area of each varicty of these classes. the series of soil according of the transect series (DW74,MMg,DMu6 , Df96) respectively were represented P<sub>1</sub> , P<sub>2</sub> , P<sub>3</sub> , P<sub>4</sub>&nbsp; .</p> <p>The second transits series(DM97,MM5,DM96,DF115) respectively were&nbsp; represented P<sub>5</sub> , P<sub>6</sub> , P<sub>7</sub> , P<sub>8</sub>&nbsp; .The third&nbsp; transits series(DM46,MMg,MF12,MM11) respectively were&nbsp; represented P<sub>9</sub> , P<sub>10</sub> , P<sub>11</sub> , P<sub>12</sub>&nbsp; .The highest variation was the salinity (Ec) Electrical conductivity and the value of coefficient of variance c.v (112.2) and the lowest variation was for (Ph) soil reaction and its value of c.v (3.26).The land of the study area was classified into four classes of capability according to the USA classification of land capability classification (1960) Class I , Class II , Class III , Class IV . The largest area was the third class with (19672)ha . and the lowest area of the first class was (5224)ha , It was found that the most important determinates in subclass capability is the problem of salinity which was highly , and the watertable of Imperfectly drained type . The Capability Units category included internal drainage,W<sub>3</sub> , Salinity , C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>2</sub> .</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Geographical Distribution of Power Plants in Iraq in 2015 Using Geographic Information Systems 2020-08-10T23:59:03+02:00 Zainab Abdul-Zahra Jaffar <p>The study aims to study the geographical distribution of electricpower plants in Iraq, except the governorates of Kurdistan Region (Dohuk, Erbil, Sulaymaniyah) due to lack of data.</p> <p>In order to reach the goal of the research was based on some mathematical equations and statistical methods to determine how the geographical distribution of these stations (gas, hydropower, steam, diesel) within the provinces and the concentration of them as well as the possibility of the classification of power plants in Iraq to facilitate understanding of distribution in a scientific manner is characterized by objectively.</p> <p>The most important results of the research are that there are a number of factors that led to the irregular distribution of these stations in the provinces, which led to a discrepancy due to the existence of variation in the same provinces because of the components (population, security situation, economic, geographical location) There are deterministic determinants forcing the decision maker to create certain type of stations without others in this province without others<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Difficulties Facing the Teaching of Writing for Students at College of Education for Women, University of Baghdad 2020-06-06T23:12:18+02:00 Tamather Hamed Mahdi <p>This research paper attempts to explore problems facing the teaching of written expression among first-year female university students. The focal point behind conducting this research is to show the importance that writing is taking as a skill in learning the language. To achieve this goal, the researcher prepared a questionnaire consisting of 20 items. The sample, whose size is 60 participants, was selected randomly from the department of Arabic, College of Education for Women, University of Baghdad. Through the use of a set of statistical means including weighting means and percentage, the findings revealed that the students face many difficulties in learning writing. The researcher suggested some recommendations, mainly improving the practical side when teaching writing as a skill due to its importance in the students’ scientific and social lives. The researcher also provided some suggestions including conducting writing competitions to attract students to learn their mother tongue</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Image classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Network Using Tensorflow and Transfer of Learning 2020-06-06T23:12:20+02:00 Aseel Sami Ali MatheelEmaduldin Abdulmunem <p>The deep learning algorithm has recently achieved a lot of success, especially in the field of computer vision. This research aims to describe the classification method applied to the dataset of multiple types of images (Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and non-SAR images). In such a classification, transfer learning was used followed by fine-tuning methods. Besides, pre-trained architectures were used on the known image database ImageNet. The model VGG16 was indeed used as a feature extractor and a new classifier was trained based on extracted features.The input data mainly focused on the dataset consist of five classes including the SAR images class (houses) and the non-SAR images classes (Cats, Dogs, Horses, and Humans). The Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has been chosen as a better option for the training process because it produces a high accuracy. The final accuracy has reached 91.18% in five different classes. The results are discussed in terms of the probability of accuracy for each class in the image classification in percentage. Cats class got 99.6 %, while houses class got 100 %.Other types of classes were with an average score of 90 % and above.</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Urban Security in Cities Planning 2020-06-07T17:02:31+02:00 Nagham Khalid Mohammed Hassan Luay Taha Mohammed <p>Cities have witnessed great changes since the planning of the first cities. This is due to the increase in population and problems in services that affect urban security. As such, urban security is directed and affected by the nature of city planning and the types of services. Besides, the kind of services plays an imminent place in providing urban security at all levels. Other factors that influence urban security can be limited to the increase of population, economic and social changes. This leads to losing urban control. This study will explore the historical chronology to identify weaknesses in urban planning since its dawn and reaching solutions to protect urban security. The importance of the research lies in achieving urban security in the city through planning after making a comprehensive study of the areas to the weakness and strength of the urban area, the result is to achieve an integrated urban environment that can provide the needs of the residents with all their activities and societal components, so the residents will no longer need to cover their needs or to resort to methods that may prejudice urban security in the city to meet their needs, or to help urban planning generate a crime in certain places of the city if the study of the spaces is not thoroughly studied.</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Critical Pragmatic Study of Racism as Conceptualized in the Glorious Quran 2020-06-06T23:12:21+02:00 Wafaa Sahib Mehdi Muhammed <p>Racism changes its meaning, shape, purpose or function according to various factors such as time, place, motives, and backgrounds; among others. It seems, however, to have deep roots back in the history of mankind. Such a concept stems from a perceived difference with the other. It is fed by the feeling of being hierarchically superior in opposition to another party that is depicted as inferior. Since ancient times, racism is disguised in different forms and manifests itself on various levels. It is a truism that this ideology can be best presented via language.</p> <p>Due to its negative implication, racism lends itself to a critical kind of research.&nbsp; As such, this paper is a critical pragmatic investigation for this phenomenon as conceptualized in the Glorious Quran. Critical pragmatics focuses on how the pragmatic theories scrutinize the reflection of a negative issue in language where aspects of power or ideology are highlighted. These theories, in turn, provide the pragmatic strategies that underpin the illegitimate issue under investigation.</p> <p>This paper sets for itself the task of answering these questions: How is racism manifested in the Glorious Quran by the unbelievers? What are the pragmatic theories that are utilized to impart this notion? It aims at finding out the manifestations of racist ideology in the Glorious Quran and discovering the pragmatic theories utilized to convey racism. It is hypothesized that racism is realized explicitly and implicitly.</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Main Difficulties Faced by EFL Students in Language Learning 2020-06-10T00:23:45+02:00 Hanan Dhia Alsalihi <p><strong><em>M</em></strong>any undergraduate learners at English departments who study English as a foreign language are unable to speak and use language correctly in their post -graduate careers.&nbsp; This problem can be attributed to certain difficulties, which they faced throughout their education years that hinder their endeavors to learn. Therefore, this study aims to discover the main difficulties faced by EFL students in language learning and test the difficulty variable according to gender and college variables then find suitable solutions for enhancing learning.&nbsp; A questionnaire with 15 items and 5 scales were used to help in discovering the difficulties. The questionnaire was distributed to the selected sample of study which consists of 90 (male and female) students selected randomly from the 3<sup>rd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> year class levels at English departments from colleges of Languages and Education (Ibn-Rushd) at the University of Baghdad. The results of the study showed that EFL students face difficulties in language learning such as the role of society in discouraging English language learning, the learners’ shyness, which prevents them from speaking English in fear of making mistakes, lack of motivation, and the influence of class size and crowdedness. After analyzing the results, some recommendations and suggestions were presented to solve the problem and eliminate difficulties.</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Neurosis of Blackness and Psychological Trauma in Edward Albee's The Death of Bessie Smith 2020-06-08T18:23:04+02:00 Ienas Talib Naseef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Edward Albee, as a playwright, indicates that art should be useful and have a message. Therefore, his work foregrounds and critically examines issues concerning the Neurosis of Blackness and psychological trauma. Albee uses cruelty of racism in reflecting psychological trauma and emotional abuse of American black identity in his plays. Race, social inequality, and gender still sustain to engender controversy audience consciously. Racial discrimination is one of the major issues that affect the American Society. Albee challenges and exposes the presumptive dreams of equality of American society and institutional racism. Therefore, one of the main problems of the twentieth century in America is skin color. It affects every phase of African Americans' life including self-concept and identity which are never resolved. In addition to outlining the reasons and origins of violence as a cause of white-dominated supremacy. In his, work Albee gives different insights and meanings to those elusive dreams showing that the consequences of such unfulfilled dreams are disappointment, despair, and death. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of psychological trauma and emotional abuse of the racial distinction in Edward Albee's The Death of Bessie Smith (1956) and its effect on the elusive dreams such the dream of turning white, liberty and equality of Afro-American.&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Schema Theory and Text- worlds: A Cognitive Stylistic Analysis of Selected Literary Texts 2020-06-07T16:54:20+02:00 Eman Adil Jaafar <p><em>C</em>ognitive stylistics also well-known as cognitive poetics is a cognitive approach to language. This study aims at examining literary language by showing how Schema Theory and Text World Theory can be useful in the interpretation of literary texts. Further, the study attempts to uncover how readers can connect between the text world and the real world. Putting it differently, the study aims at showing how the interaction between ‘discourse world’ and ‘text world’. How readers can bring their own experience as well as their background knowledge to interact with the text and make interpretive connections. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Schema and text world theories are useful tools in cognitive stylistic studies. The reader's perception of a particular text world depends on her/his existing schema during the process of interpretation. The selected texts for the study are "Strange Meeting" by Wilfred Owen, "In Winter" by Corbett Harrison and the opening passage of David Lodge's <em>novel Changing Places</em> which are intended to show how the two theories can be integrated to account for the way in which text worlds are perceived. So as a result, readers start establishing meaning based on their schemata and these meanings change through adding a new one. The cognitive ability to understand literary texts and how readers build mind worlds is a crucial aim in cognitive poetics. An in-depth cognitive stylistic analysis reveals significant points about reading and interpreting the selected literary texts by providing a way of thinking about background knowledge and how the individual's experience would influence their interpretation and viewing of the &nbsp;text world.</p> 2020-06-06T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##